Inventory of the Wilmington 10 Collection, 1971 - 2013 Mss.Coll.027

Inventory of the Wilmington 10 Collection, 1971 - 2013
Mss.Coll.027


This finding aid is NCEAD compliant.
Elon University



© 2008 Elon University. All Rights Reserved.

Contact Information:

Belk Library Archives and Special Collections
Elon University
2550 Campus Box
Elon, North Carolina
27244
336-278-6599
Email: belkarchives@elon.edu
URL: http://www.elon.edu/e-web/library/libraryinfo/archiveinfo.xhtml

Descriptive Summary

Repository: Elon University. Belk Library Archives and Special Collections
Creator: Southern Conference-UCC office in Elon, NC
Title: Wilmington 10 Collection, 1971 - 2013
Language of Material: Material in English
Location: The collection is located in the Carol Grotnes Belk Library Archives and Special Collections at Elon University. Please contact the Archivist and Special Collections Librarian for further details about the location.
Abstract: The Wilmington 10 were a group of nine black men and one white woman who were controversially convicted on charges of arson and conspiracy after a racially-motivated 1971 riot in Wilmington, North Carolina. The leader of the group, Benjamin Chavis, was then employed as a community organizer for the United Church of Christ's Commission for Racial Justice. During the trial and appeals process, the Wilmington 10 received significant financial and legal support from the UCC. Largely consisting of textual materials, this collection is divided into six series: Correspondence; Financial Documents; Legal Documents; Literary Productions; Minutes; Printed Material. These materials range in date from 1971 to 2013, with the bulk of the collection dating from 1972 to 1978. This collection would be an excellent source for those interested in the United Church of Christ's involvement with the Wilmington 10, and the internal dissension such support created within the denomination, especially within North Carolina. Other researchers interested in government intervention in the legal proceedings, public reaction to the case, and the events of the case in general will also be well served by this collection.
Extent: 1 linear foot, 1 archival box

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Administrative Information

Access Restrictions

Collection is open for research.


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Copyright Notice

The nature of the Archives and Special Collections of Belk Library means that copyright or other information about restrictions may be difficult or even impossible to determine despite reasonable efforts. The Archives and Special Collections of Belk Library claims only physical ownership of most materials. The materials from our collections are made available for use in research, teaching, and private study, pursuant to the U.S. Copyright Law. The user must assume full responsibility for any use of the materials, including but not limited to, infringement of copyright and publication rights of reproduced materials. Any materials used for academic research of otherwise should be fully credited with the source.


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Preferred Citation

[Identification of item], Wilmington 10 Collection, Belk Library Archives and Special Collections, Elon University, Elon, NC, USA.


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Gift or Purchase Note

Gift. The materials in this collection were originally acquired in March 2007 as part of a rather large collection of archival records from the Southern Conference office located in Elon, North Carolina. All paper records pertaining to this donation can be found in the Correspondence Legal File under the heading Southern Conference-UCC. Materials relating to the Wilmington 10 were already boxed together when the transfer was made, thus it was decided to formally arrange these materials as their own collection.


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Accession Information

Not applicable to this specific collection. The original collection it appeared in from the Southern Conference was accession number 2007.9.1.


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Processing Information

Processed by Kristin Shaffer, September, 2008

Encoded by Kristin Shaffer, October, 2008


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Historical Note

In Wilmington, North Carolina, the long-delayed desegregation of public schools during the 1969-1970 school year strained race relations in the city. By late January 1971, African American students announced a boycott of city schools. A field organizer for the United Church of Christ Commission for Racial Justice, Ben Chavis, was sent to Wilmington to coordinate the boycott.

As tensions in the city mounted, a number of arson attempts were made on downtown businesses. On the night of February 6, 1971, Mike's Grocery, a white-owned grocery store in a predominately black neighborhood, was firebombed. Snipers on the roof of the nearby Gregory Congregational Church, where Chavis was headquartered, shot at firemen and policemen arriving to the scene. Two people were killed and several injured during the hostilities which ensued. In their 1972 trial, the group which came to be known as the "Wilmington 10"-nine black men (including Chavis) and one white woman-were convicted on charges of arson and conspiracy to fire upon firemen and police officers, and sentenced to a combined 282 years in prison.

Following this ruling, a number of conflicting reports about the events of February 6, 1971, and the questionable prosecution of the original trial circulated, and many believed the Wilmington 10 to be political prisoners unjustly held for their beliefs, not their actions. After higher courts refused to grant the Wilmington 10 a new trial, North Carolina Governor James B. Hunt declined to pardon the Wilmington 10 but did reduce their sentences. In 1980, the Fourth Circuit of the United States Court of Appeals overturned the conviction and freed the Wilmington 10.

During the trial and appeals process, the Executive Council of the United Church of Christ threw its support behind UCC employee Chavis and his fellow defendants, financing their bail and legal defense and publicly pronouncing their innocence. This prompted a great deal of dissension within the denomination, as several predominately white UCC churches within the Southern Conference withheld money from national UCC mission funds and threatened to secede from the UCC. Meanwhile, the Executive Council and Commission for Racial Justice continued to support the Wilmington 10. Much of this collection from the Southern Conference headquarters documents this internecine struggle.

Please consult the list below for additional information regarding people involved with the Wilmington 10 incident.



The Wilmington 10:
* Ben Chavis: field organizer for the Commission for Racial Justice; later became executive director of the Commission for Racial Justice and executive director of the NAACP
* Reginald Epps
* Jerry Jacobs
* James "Bun" McKoy
* Wayne Moore
* Marvin "Chili" Patrick
* Anne Shepard: VISTA anti-poverty worker
* Connie Tindall
* Willie Earl Vereen
* William "Joe" Wright Jr.



Other individuals involved who appear in this collection:
* Griffin Bell: United States attorney general, 1977-1979
* Charles E. Cobb: executive director, Commission for Racial Justice
* Jack Cozort: legal counsel to Governor James B. Hunt
* Luther M. Cromartie: mayor of Wilmington, 1969-1972
* Rufus Edmisten: North Carolina attorney general
* James Ferguson: attorney representing the Wilmington 10
* Clyde L. Fields: conference minister, Eastern North Carolina Association, Southern Conference of the United Church of Christ; Elon alum (class of 1949)
* George Fountain: North Carolina Superior Court judge, presided at 1977 post-conviction hearing for Wilmington 10, denied request for new trial
* Allen Hall: witness for the prosecution in the 1972 trial; later recanted his testimony
* James Holshouser: governor of North Carolina, 1973-1977
* James B. Hunt: lieutenant governor of North Carolina, 1973-1977; governor of North Carolina, 1977-1985 and 1993-2001
* Irv Joyner: director of the Criminal Justice Program, Commission for Racial Justice
* James H. Lightbourne Jr.: conference minister, Southern Conference of the United Church of Christ; Elon alum (class of 1942)
* Jerome Mitchell: witness for the prosecution in the 1972 trial; later recanted his testimony
* Marilyn A. Moore: assistant to the executive director, Commission for Racial Justice
* James W. Morrison: associate conference minister, Southern Conference of the United Church of Christ
* Robert V. Moss: United Church of Christ president, 1969-1976
* Avery D. Post: United Church of Christ president, 1977-1989
* John T. Redmond: attorney for the United Church of Christ, assisted in representing Chavis and the Wilmington 10
* James T. "Jay" Stroud: New Hanover county assistant district attorney and prosecutor in 1972 Wilmington 10 trial
* Eugene Templeton: pastor of Gregory Congregational Church (UCC) in Wilmington at the time of the February 1971 riots
* Leon White: director, North Carolina-Virginia field office, Commission for Racial Justice



Sources Consulted:
Godwin, John L. (2000.) Black Wilmington and the North Carolina Way: Portrait of a Community in the Era of Civil Rights Protest. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America.
Graham, Nicholas. (2005.) "This Month in North Carolina History: The Wilmington Ten." Retrieved September 23, 2008 from http://www.lib.unc.edu/ncc/ref/nchistory/feb2005/index.html


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Scope and Content Note

This collection is composed largely of textual materials documenting the Wilmington 10 from the office of Southern Conference of the United Church of Christ in Burlington, North Carolina. It is arranged alphabetically by type of material into six series, then chronologically within each series, where applicable. The series are: Correspondence; Financial Documents; Legal Documents; Literary Productions; Minutes; Printed Material. These materials range in date from 1971 to 1998, with the bulk of the collection dating from 1972 to 1978.

This collection would be an excellent source for those interested in the United Church of Christ’s involvement in the Wilmington 10, and the internal dissension such support created within the denomination, especially within North Carolina. Other researchers interested in government intervention in the legal proceedings, public reaction to the case, and the events of the case in general will also be well served by this collection.

The bulk of the letters and memos in the Correspondence series document conflict within the UCC, as individual congregations protested the church’s support for the Wilmington 10. Letters between Southern Conference Minister Dr. Lightbourne and UCC executives, in addition to Dr. Lightbourne’s pastoral letters to his constituency, demonstrate his middleman role in negotiating this conflict.

The Literary Productions series includes essays and manuscripts providing histories of the case sympathetic to the Wilmington 10 (4:1-4:2), as well as plans from the Commission for Racial Justice for a “national education and mobilization campaign” to increase public support (4:3) and a number of resolutions from various churches and other groups regarding the Wilmington 10 (4:5-4:6).

The Printed Material series is by far the largest series, mainly on account of the many newspaper clippings that were saved by the Southern Conference documenting the Wilmington 10 (6:22-6:39). In addition to these clippings, the highlights of this series are newsletters from the Commission for Racial Justice and its Criminal Justice program following the Wilmington 10 (6:9-6:19), as well as several press releases from the UCC Office of Communication announcing the UCC’s official positions as the case unfolded (6:44-6:48).

The Financial Documents, Legal Documents, and Minutes series are the smallest in the collection. Additional information about each of these series and others in the collection can be found below in the Detailed Description of the Collection (Series Note).

The materials in this collection were originally acquired in March 2007 as part of a rather large collection of archival records from the Southern Conference office located in Elon, North Carolina. Materials relating to the Wilmington 10 were already boxed together when the transfer was made, thus it was decided to formally arrange these materials as their own collection. Any other materials relating to the Wilmington 10 that are found at a later date will be filed with the original Southern Conference/UCC church collection.


Arrangement

The collection is arranged alphabetically by type of material into six series, then chronologically within each series, where applicable. The series are: Correspondence; Financial Documents; Legal Documents; Literary Productions; Minutes; Printed Material.


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Online Catalog Headings

These and related materials may be found under the following headings in online catalogs.

African Americans -- Civil rights -- North Carolina -- Wilmington -- History -- 20th century
Chavis, Ben, 1948-
Civil rights movements -- North Carolina -- Wilmington -- History -- 20th century
North Carolina -- Church history -- United Church of Christ
United Church of Christ -- History
United Church of Christ -- Southern conference -- History
Wilmington (N.C.) -- Race relations
Wilmington (N.C.) -- Social conditions -- 20th century
Elon University -- Archival resources

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Related Material

For additional materials relating to conflict within the UCC during the 1970s, including but not limited to its positions on civil rights, please consult the UCC Controversy-1977 series within the Southern Conference/UCC church collection. Please consult with the Archivist and Special Collections Librarian for additional information about related materials to this collection.

Detailed Description of the Collection

1. Correspondence. Inclusive: 1971-2011. Bulk: 1971-1978.
17 Folders. ca. 160 Items.
The majority of correspondence in this rather large series documents the conflicting sentiments that members and leaders of the United Church of Christ held regarding congregational support for the Wilmington 10. Many of the letters (1:1-1:9) are addressed to Dr. Lightbourne from members and ministers within the Southern Conference protesting UCC support for the Wilmington 10; copies of Dr. Lightbourne’s responses are included more often than not. Many churches wrote of their intention to withhold tithes from the denomination’s Our Christian World Mission (OCWM) fund to avoid financing the Wilmington 10’s legal defense, while other parishioners threatened to leave the UCC altogether. Letters of support to Dr. Lightbourne are few and far between.
Also found throughout the letters subseries (1:1-1:9) are letters written by Dr. Lightbourne, in his role as Conference Minister, for dissemination to ministers and members of the Southern Conference. In these he attempts to justify the Executive Council’s support for the Wilmington 10 and encourage such support within his conference. There are also letters between Dr. Lightbourne and the Executive Council which demonstrate Dr. Lightbourne’s own questions regarding Executive Council decisions as he reports the internal dissension their actions were creating within the Southern Conference.
The subseries for memos (1:10-1:14) and telegrams (1:15-1:16) contain communication largely within the Executive Council, briefing its members on media coverage and legal issues surrounding the Wilmington 10 case. Also of note are memos documenting the 1977 formation of a “governor’s consultation” composed of a number of North Carolina ministers asking Governor James B. Hunt to grant a pardon of innocence to the Wilmington 10 (1:13), as well as a legal analysis of the case written for Dr. Lightbourne by a UCC lawyer representing the Wilmington 10 (1:14).
Folder 1. Letters. Undated.
* Chavis, Ben
* Lightbourne, James H., Jr.
* Duke Divinity School
* Zion UCC-Lenoir, NC
* Fountain, George
* NC Department of Corrections
* Edmisten, Rufus
* Wilmington 10 Defense Committee
* Raleigh Tenants Organization
* Community UCC-Raleigh, NC
* NC Alliance Against Racist and Political Repression
* petition for amnesty to NC governor
* NC-Va. Commission for Racial Justice
* St. Paul AME Church-Chapel Hill, NC
* Freedom Day Celebration-Chapel Hill/Carrboro, NC
* "Letters Pertaining to Concerns Within Southern Conference"
* First UCC-Hampton, Va.
* Warwick UCC-Newport News, Va.
* New Lebanon Christian Church-Reidsville, NC
* Kallam Grove Christian Church-Madison, NC
* Mt. Bethel UCC-Summerfield, NC
* New Emmanuel Congregational Christian Church-Charlotte, NC
* St. Matthew's UCC-Maiden, NC
* Liberty Vance UCC-Henderson, NC
* Bethlehem UCC-Elon College, NC
* Bethlehem Christian Church-Suffolk, Va.
* Trinity Church in Green Run-Virginia Beach, Va.
* First Congregational Christian Church-Reidsville, NC
* Piney Plain Church-Raleigh, NC
* Davidson-Forsyth Ministerium
* New Hope Christian Church-Louisburg, NC
* Lyerly Memorial UCC-Rockwell, NC
Folder 2. Letters. 1971.
* Fields, Clyde L.
* Cromartie, Luther M.
* Gregory Congregational Church-Wilmington, NC
* Templeton, Eugene
* Lightbourne, James H., Jr.
Folder 3. Letters. 1972.
* Fields, Clyde L.
* Wilmington Resolution
* Lightbourne, James H., Jr.
* Moss, Robert V.
* Commission for Racial Justice (UCC)
* Chavis, Ben
* Redmond, John T.
* Wilmington 10 Task Force-UCC Executive Council
* Smoot, Lowell A.
* White, Leon
* United Church of Christ-Durham, NC
* First UCC-Salisbury, NC
* UCC posts bond for Chavis-reaction
* Southern Conference
* Ferguson, James
* Cobb, Charles E.
* First Reformed UCC-High Point, NC
* NC-Va. Commission for Racial Justice
Folder 4. Letters. 1973.
* Moss, Robert V.
* Lightbourne, James H., Jr.
* Chavis, Ben
* White, Leon
* Cobb, Charles E.
* Cary, Sterling
* Isenberg, Harold D.
* Baraka, Imamu Amiri
* National Council of Churches
* First UCC-Charlotte, NC
* Grace Reformed UCC-Newton, NC
* First UCC-Salisbury, NC
* Parker, Everett
* Zion UCC-Lenoir, NC
* Chavis, Ben-salary
* UCC support for Chavis-reaction
* Boger UCC-Rockwell, NC
* Pilgrim Reformed UCC-Lexington, NC
* Community UCC-Raleigh, NC
* United Church Herald Edition-A.D. magazine
* St. Paul's UCC-China Grove, NC
* Davis, Angela
* First Reformed UCC-High Point, NC
* First Congregational Church-Martinez, Calif.
* Penn Northeast UCC Conference
* Boehm, M. A. (Bud)
* Grace UCC-Covington, KY
* O'Connell, Dudley
* Shallow Well UCC-Sanford, NC
* St John's UCC-Richmond, VA
Folder 5. Letters. 1974.
* Lightbourne, James H., Jr.
* O'Connell, Dudley
* Shallow Well UCC-Sanford, NC
* Moss, Robert V.
* Chavis, Ben
* Commission for Racial Justice (UCC)
Folder 6. Letters. 1975.
* NC Human Relations Committee
* Wilmington 10 Defense Committee
* Cobb, Charles E.
* Moss, Robert V.
* Chavis, Ben
* Lawyers Committee-UCC Executive Council
* Dressler, Robert L.
* O'Connell, Dudley
* Yates, Jack E.
Folder 7. Letters. 1976.
* Moss, Robert V.
* Cobb, Charles E.
* U.S. Supreme Court declines Wilmington 10 appeal
* Shallow Well UCC-Sanford, NC
* O'Connell, Dudley
* Lightbourne, James H., Jr.
* Chavis, Ben
* Davis, Angela
* Commission for Racial Justice (UCC)
* Southern Conference
* First E&R UCC-location unknown
* NC Department of Corrections
* McCain Correctional facility-McCain, NC
* Union Grove Christian Church UCC-Asheboro, NC
* Applewhite, Harry C.
* Chavis, Ben-suit against NC Department of Corrections
* UCC Office of Communication
* Kernodle, John, Jr.
* Fields, Clyde L.
* Morrison, James W.
* Edmisten, Rufus
* Pilgrim UCC-Durham, NC
* Durham Morning Herald
* Hall, Allen-recantation of testimony
* UCC support for Chavis-reaction
* First Baptist Church-Raleigh, NC
* White, Leon
* MacNair, Everett W.
* NC Council of Churches
* Holshouser, James
* First Evangelical and Reformed Church-Asheboro, NC
Folder 8. Letters. 1977.
* Hunt, James B.
* Chavis, Ben
* Commission for Racial Justice (UCC)
* Lightbourne, James H., Jr.
* Edmisten, Rufus
* Bishop of North Carolina
* Alston, Bernice
* O'Connell, Dudley
* UCC support for Chavis-reaction
* Abernethy, David
* Morrison, James W.
* open letter to Governor Hunt
* UCC Office of Communication
* World Council of Churches
* Guptill, Nathanael M.
* Cozort, Jack
* Piney Plain Church-Raleigh, NC
* Liberty Vance UCC-Henderson, NC
* Trinity Church in Green Run-Virginia Beach, Va.
* St. Matthew's UCC-Maiden, NC
* Bethlehem UCC-Elon College, NC
* Church of the Master UCC-Hickory, NC
* Lyerly Memorial UCC-Rockwell, NC
Folder 9. Letters. 1978.
* First UCC-Salisbury, NC
* White, Leon
* Cobb, Charles E.
* Post, Avery D.
* Lightbourne, James H., Jr.
* Wilmington 10 Committee-UCC Executive Council
* open letter to President Carter
* Redmond, John T.
* legal analysis of amicus curiae brief on Wilmington 10
* Alcorn, Edwin
* Mt. Zion UCC-China Grove, NC
* First Congregational Christian Church-Reidsville, NC
* Shiloh UCC-Faith, NC
* Executive Committee of the Borad of Directors of the UCC
* Southern Conference of the UCC
* Mt Hope UCC-Whitsett, NC
* Great Ridge Congregational Christian Church-Chesapeake, VA
* Seabury, Arthur
* Andes, Mark W.
* St John's UCC-Kannapolis, NC
* Black Church Development Commission
* Joyner, Irv
* Hunt, Gov. James B.
* First Evangelical and Reformed UCC-Asheboro, NC
* Redding, Mr. and Mrs. R. Eugene
* Pilgrim UCC-Durham, NC
* Dickens, Robert L.
* Union Ridge UCC-Burlington, NC
* Emanuel UCC-Lincolnton, NC
* Myers, George W., Jr.
* Rhodes, Herbert
* Peeler, George D.
* Goodson, Dan
Folder 9.1. Letters.2011.
* open letter to Mayor Bill Saffo-Wilminton, NC
* Moore, Wayne
Folder 10. Memos. 1972.
* Administrative Committee-UCC Executive Council
* Redmond, John T.
* Ferguson, James
* UCC posts bond for Chavis
* legal analysis of the Wilmington 10 case
Folder 11. Memos. 1975.
* Cobb, Charles E.
* Commission for Racial Justice (UCC)-goal, mission, objectives
* UCC Executive Council
* Chavis, Ben-employment by Commission for Racial Justice (UCC)
Folder 12. Memos. 1976.
* Chavis, Ben-suit against NC Department of Corrections
* Chavis, Ben
* Ferguson, James
* Commission for Racial Justice (UCC)
* mailing addresses for Wilmington 10
* UCC Executive Council
* Hall, Allen
* Hall, Allen-recantation of testimony
* media coverage of Wilmington 10
* Cobb, Charles E.
* Moore, Marilyn A.
Folder 13. Memos. 1977.
* Parker, Everett C.
* Redmond, John T.
* Hall, Allen-recantation of testimony
* media coverage of Wilmington 10
* UCC Executive Council
* UCC Office of Communication
* Commission for Racial Justice (UCC)
* Joyner, Irv
* petition for pardon to Governor Hunt
* Post, Avery D.
* Lightbourne, James H., Jr.
* Cobb, Charles E.
* Bell, Griffin
* Catawba Inter-Presbytery Program Agency
* Henderson, Elo L.
* Governor's consultation on Wilmington 10
* open letter to Governor Hunt
* Hunt, James B.
Folder 14. Memos. 1978.
* Lightbourne, James H., Jr.
* Redmond, John T.
* petition for pardon to Governor Hunt
* parole for Wilmington 10
* legal analysis of Wilmington 10 case
* UCC support for Chavis
Folder 15. Telegrams. Undated.
* Lightbourne, James H., Jr.
* Moss, Robert V.
Folder 16. Telegrams. 1976-1977.
* Lightbourne, James H., Jr.
* Cobb, Charles E.
* U.S. Supreme Court declines Wilmington 10 appeal
* Holshouser, James H.
* Edmisten, Rufus
* Moore, Marilyn A.
* "60 Minutes" story on Wilmington 10
2. Financial Documents. 1971-1978.
1 Folder. 3 items.
This series documents UCC spending on behalf of the Wilmington 10 for bail, legal fees, and mobilization expenses. This information comes in the form of an Executive Council motion approving Wilmington 10 spending for 1977, an accounting of the Commission for Racial Justice and the Executive Council’s Wilmington 10 expenses from 1971 to 1977, and a fact sheet outlining spending UCC expenditures from 1972-1977 and their financial commitments for 1978 (2:1).
Folder 1. Budget Information. 1972-1978.
* Wilmington 10 Committee-UCC Executive Council
* Commission for Racial Justice (UCC)
* legal fees and expenses for Wilmington 10
3. Legal Documents. 1976-1980.
3 Folders. 3 Items.
This small series contains a variety of legal documents: a copy of the 1980 decision from the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals overturning the prior convictions of the Wilmington 10 (3:1), a blank copy of a petition for amnesty addressed to the North Carolina governor and sponsored by the N.C.-Va. Commission for Racial Justice (3:2), and a copy of witness Allen Hall’s sworn statement of August 1976 (3:3).
Folder 1. Decision. United States Court of Appeals. 1980.
* U.S. Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit
* Chavis, Ben
* Ferguson, James
* Redmond, John T.
* Hall, Allen-recantation of testimony
Folder 2. Petitions. Undated.
* petition for amnesty
* UCC
* NC Governor
Folder 3. Statement. 1976.
* Hall, Allen-legal statement
4. Literary Productions. 1972-1978.
6 Folders. ca. 10 Items.
This series includes essays and manuscripts that provide a history of race relations in Wilmington, Ben Chavis’s background, and accounts of the February 1971 violence in Wilmington – all sympathetic to the Wilmington 10’s point of view (4:1-4:2). Also of note is a proposal written by the Commission for Racial Justice leaders for a “national education and mobilization campaign” to increase public support (especially among the UCC constituency) for the Wilmington 10 (4:4). This series also includes a number of resolutions produced by various churches and groups, both in support of and in opposition to the UCC’s advocacy for the Wilmington 10 (4:5-4:6).
Folder 1. Essays. Undated.
* "The Black Community Lives Under a Police State in Wilmington, North Carolina"
* NC-Va. Commission for Racial Justice
* "Outside the Neighborhood"
* Maurer, Robert
* Chavis, Ben
* "Crisis in Wilmington: A Background Paper"
* UCC Office of Communications
Folder 2. Manuscripts. 1972.
* "Wilmington: Seeds of Injustice"
* NC-Va. Commission for Racial Justice
* Commission for Racial Justice (UCC)
Folder 3. Miscellaneous Notes. Undated.
* Chavis, Ben
Folder 4. Proposals. 1976.
* Cobb, Charles E.
* Joyner, Irv
* Commission for Racial Justice (UCC)
* "Proposal for National Education and Mobilization Campaign in Support of the Wilmington 10"
Folder 5. Resolutions. Undated.
* Congregational Christian and UCC Churches of Rockingham County (NC)
* Diocese of North Carolina
* UCC support for Wilmington 10-reaction
Folder 6. Resolutions. 1976-1978.
* Michigan Conference of the UCC
* Southern Conference
* Black Church Development Commission
* Ministers for Racial and Social Justice-NC and Va.
* Franklinton Center
* UCC support for Wilmington 10-reaction
* Bethlehem Christian Church-Suffolk, Va.
* Rockingham County (NC) Congregational Christian Churches and United Churches of Christ
5. Minutes. 1975 and 1978.
2 Folders. 2 Items.
This small series contains minutes from two meetings of two different groups supporting the Wilmington 10. The first set of minutes records part of an April 1978 meeting of the UCC Executive Council adopting a position description for a Wilmington 10 Committee and reaffirming their commitment to the Wilmington 10 (5:1). The second set is from a January 1975 meeting of the Wilmington 10 Defense Committee, recording plans for circulating a petition around North Carolina, updates on the appeals process, and reports on legal expenses and finances (5:2).
Folder 1. UCC Executive Council. 1978.
* "Actions of the Executive Council, April 2-4, 1978"
* Wilmington 10 Committee-UCC Executive Council-position description
* UCC support for Wilmington 10
Folder 2. Wilmington 10 Defense Committee. 1975.
* Wilmington 10 Defense Committee
* Chavis, Ben
* Shepard, Anne
* Hulslander, Mac
* UCC support for Wilmington 10
6. Printed Material. Inclusive: 1971-2013. Bulk: 1972-1978.
52 Folders. ca. 310 Items.
This sizable series of materials is largely made up of newspaper clippings (6:22-6:39) following the development of the Wilmington 10 case. Topics include, but are not limited to, Chavis’s suit against the North Carolina Department of Corrections, the recantation of testimony against the Wilmington 10 by Allen Hall and Jerome Mitchell, state and federal review of the case, the missing files from the Good Neighbor Council, Governor Hunt’s decision not to pardon the Wilmington 10, and editorial pieces evaluating the carriage of justice in the case. A handful of clippings from the 1990s (6:37-6:39) follow Chavis’s controversial tenure as NAACP president and his conversion to Islam.
Researchers interested in newspaper coverage of the Wilmington 10 will also want to look at the booklet included in this series titled “Wilmington 10: Editorials and Cartoons” (6:1). This publication, produced by the Commission for Racial Justice, compiled editorials and political cartoons defending the rights of the Wilmington 10. Magazines and magazine clippings found in this series as well are likewise largely sympathetic to the Wilmington 10 (6:5-6:7). Also included is a 1978 article from The New York Times Magazine that paints the defendants in a much more unfavorable light (6:6).
Newsletters comprise another significant part of this series. Preserved here are several issues of “Commission News” from the Commission for Racial Justice (6:9-6:13) and “Criminal Justice Issues” from the Commission’s Criminal Justice program (6:14-6:19) reporting on the case of the Wilmington 10 and asking for reader support. A few newsletters from other organizations are also included here (6:8, 6:20-6:21).
Press releases from the UCC Office of Communication announce developments in the case and declare UCC sentiment and actions in support of the Wilmington 10 (6:44-6:48). Press releases from the Commission for Racial Justice, the Southern Conference, and an assortment of other groups are located here as well (6:41-6:43).
Also of note in this series are transcripts of a 1972 conversation summarizing Mr. Redmond’s legal analysis of the case (6:49) and of Ambassador Young’s controversial statement in Caracas in 1978 proclaiming the innocence of the Wilmington 10 (6:50).
Finally, a variety of printed materials included here are promotional items defending the Wilmington 10. Fact sheets from various sources outline the role of Gregory Congregational Church in the violence (6:2) and provide a timeline of events in the Wilmington 10 case (6:2-6:3). An undated flyer (6:4) calls the residents of Charlotte, North Carolina, to a Christmastime rally in support of the Wilmington 10 and the Charlotte 3, while pamphlets (6:40) highlight the apparent injustices in the Wilmington 10’s trial.
Folder 1. Booklets. 1977.
* "Wilmington 10: Editorials and Cartoons"
* media coverage of Wilmington 10
* Chavis, Ben
* Commission for Racial Justice (UCC)
Folder 2. Fact Sheets. Undated.
* "Five Questions About Gregory's Involvement in the New Hanover School Crisis"
* Templeton, Eugene
* Gregory Congregational Church-Wilmington, NC
* Chavis, Ben
* Commission for Racial Justice (UCC)
* Morrison, James W.
* White, Leon
Folder 3. Fact Sheets. 1977-1978.
* "Factual Summary of the Wilmington 10 Case"
* Chavis, Ben
* Hall, Allen
* Templeton, Eugene
* Fountain, George
Folder 4. Flyers. Undated.
* Charlotte, NC
* Charlotte 3
* petition for pardon of Wilmington 10 and Charlotte 3
Folder 5. Magazine Clippings. Undated.
* "A Great Injustice Has Been Done"
* Langston, Maxine M.
* "The Presumption of Innocence"
* Herzog, Frederick
* trial of Wilmington 10
* The Christian Century
Folder 6. Magazine Clippings. 1976-1978.
* "North Carolina's Buried Treasure: The Ben Chavis Case"
* Maurer, Robert
* The Christian Century
* Chavis, Ben
* "Trials: The Wilmington 10"
* Smith, Vern E.
* Lesher, Stephan
* Newsweek
* "The Wilmington 10: Carolina Closes the Door"
* Pollitt, Daniel H.
* trial of Wilmington 10
* "The Case Against the Wilmington 10"
* King, Wayne
* The New York Times Magazine
Folder 7. Magazines. 1976-1978.
* Encore: American and Worldwide News
* "Vengeance and Justice in North Carolina"
* Dreyer, Eric
* Chavis, Ben
* trial of Wilmington 10
* A.D. magazine
* "A Case of Commitment for the United Church of Christ: Defense of the Wilmington 10"
* Post, Avery D.
Folder 8. Newsletter Clippings. Undated.
* Young, Andrew
* Ferguson, James
Folder 9. Newsletters. Commission News. 1973.
* Commission for Racial Justice (UCC)
* UCC support for Wilmington 10
Folder 10. Newsletters. Commission News. 1977.
* Commission for Racial Justice (UCC)
Folder 11. Newsletters. Commission News. 1978.
* Commission for Racial Justice (UCC)
* Hunt, James B.
* Wright, William "Joe"
Folder 12. Newsletters. Commission News. 1979.
* Commission for Racial Justice (UCC)
* UCC support for Wilmington 10
* White, Leon
Folder 13. Newsletters. Commission News. 1980.
* Commission for Racial Justice (UCC)
* Chavis, Ben
* Cobb, Charles E.
Folder 14. Newsletters. Criminal Justice Issues. 1975.
* Commission for Racial Justice (UCC)
* trial of Wilmington 10
* UCC support for Wilmington 10
Folder 15. Newsletters. Criminal Justice Issues. 1976.
* Commission for Racial Justice (UCC)
* UCC support for Wilmington 10
* Chavis, Ben
* Charlotte 3
* media coverage of Wilmington 10
Folder 16. Newsletters. Criminal Justice Issues. 1977.
* Commission for Racial Justice (UCC)
* media coverage of Wilmington 10
* trial of Wilmington 10
* UCC support for Wilmington 10
Folder 17. Newsletters. Criminal Justice Issues. 1978.
* Commission for Racial Justice (UCC)
* Amnesty International
* trial of Wilmington 10
* Charlotte 3
Folder 18. Newsletters. Criminal Justice Issues. 1979.
* Commission for Racial Justice (UCC)
* trial of Wilmington 10
* UCC support for Wilmington 10
* National Conference of Black Lawyers
* Charlotte 3
Folder 19. Newsletters. Criminal Justice News. 1973.
* NC-Va. Commission for Racial Justice
* UCC support for Wilmington 10
Folder 20. Newsletters. Michigan Conference. 1976.
* Michigan Conference of the UCC
* UCC support for Wilmington 10
Folder 21. Newsletters. Penn Northeast Conference News. 1973.
* Penn Northeast Conference of the UCC
* UCC Executive Council
* UCC support for Wilmington 10
Folder 22. Newspaper Clippings. Undated.
* UCC posts bail for Wilmington 10
* petition for pardon
* Hall, Allen-recantation of testimony
* Chavis, Ben-suit against NC Department of Corrections
* Good Neighbor Council missing files
* UCC support for Wilmington 10
Folder 23. Newspaper Clippings. 1971.
* Wilmington-New Hanover Human Relations Commission
* Commission for Racial Justice (UCC)
* Chavis, Ben
* Kirby, Roderick
Folder 24. Newspaper Clippings. 1972-1974.
* UCC support for Wilmington 10-reaction
Folder 25. Newspaper Clippings. 1976 January-June.
* Chavis, Ben-suit against NC Department of Corrections
* Davis, Angela
Folder 26. Newspaper Clippings. 1976 July-December.
* Good Neighbor Council missing files
* Hall, Allen-recantation of testimony
Folder 27. Newspaper Clippings. 1977 January-February.
* Justice Department review of Wilmington 10 case
Folder 28. Newspaper Clippings. 1977 March-April.
* Hall, Allen-recantation of testimony
* Mitchell, Jerome-recantation of testimony
* Justice Department review of Wilmington 10 case
Folder 29. Newspaper Clippings. 1977 May-June.
* UCC support for Wilmington 10-reaction
* Fountain, George
* Hall, Allen-recantation of testimony
Folder 30. Newspaper Clippings. 1977 July-August.
* rallies for Wilmington 10
* UCC support for Wilmington 10-reaction
Folder 31. Newspaper Clippings. 1977 September-October.
* petition for pardon to Governor Hunt
Folder 32. Newspaper Clippings. 1977 November-December.
* Amnesty International
* petition for pardon to Governor Hunt
* UCC boycott reports
Folder 33. Newspaper Clippings. 1978 January-June.
* Hunt declines to pardon Wilmington 10
* UCC support for Wilmington 10-reaction
Folder 34. Newspaper Clippings. 1978 July-December.
* Justice Department review of Wilmington 10 case
* Chavis, Ben
Folder 35. Newspaper Clippings. 1979-1980.
* U.S. Court of Appeals-Wilmington 10 convictions overturned
Folder 36. Newspaper Clippings. 1987.
* Chavis, Ben
* Commission for Racial Justice (UCC)-boycott
Folder 37. Newspaper Clippings. 1993-1994.
* Chavis, Ben
* NAACP dissension
Folder 38. Newspaper Clippings. 1996.
* Chavis, Ben
* NAACP sexual harassment suit
Folder 39. Newspaper Clippings. 1997-1998.
* Chavis, Ben-conversion to Islam
Folder 39.1. Newspaper Clippings.2013.
* Perdue, Bev
* Chavis, Ben
Folder 40. Pamphlets. 1976-1977.
* Applewhite, Harry C.
* Chavis, Ben
* Commission for Racial Justice (UCC)
* Wilmington 10 Task Group-NC Council of Churches
* trial of Wilmington 10
Folder 41. Press Releases. Miscellaneous. 1977-1978.
* Commission for Racial Justice (UCC)
* Cobb, Charles E.
* Hall, Allen-recantation of testimony
* trial of Wilmington 10
Folder 42. Press Releases. Commission for Racial Justice (UCC). 1976.
* Beasley, Yvonne
* Lightbourne, James H., Jr.
* UCC support for Wilmington 10
* open letter to Governor Hunt
* NC Council of Churches
* Western North Carolina Conference-United Methodist Church
Folder 43. Press Releases. Southern Conference. Undated.
* Southern Conference
* UCC boycott reports
* Lightbourne, James H., Jr.
Folder 44. Press Releases. UCC Office of Communication. Undated.
* UCC Office of Communication
* UCC support for Wilmington 10
* UCC support for Chavis
* Chavis, Ben
* Cobb, Charles E.
* Commission for Racial Justice (UCC)
Folder 45. Press Releases. UCC Office of Communication. 1975.
* UCC Office of Communication
* Cobb, Charles E.
* Commission for Racial Justice (UCC)
* UCC support for Wilmington 10
* trial of Wilmington 10
Folder 46. Press Releases. UCC Office of Communication. 1976.
* UCC Office of Communication
* Moss, Robert V.
* Chavis, Ben
* Chavis, Ben-suit against NC Department of Corrections
* Hall, Allen-recantation of testimony
* trial of Wilmington 10
Folder 47. Press Releases. UCC Office of Communication. 1977.
* UCC Office of Communication
* Cobb, Charles E.
* Commission for Racial Justice (UCC)
* Hunt, James B.
* Mitchell, Jerome
* trial of Wilmington 10
* Fountain, George
* Chavis, Ben
* Redmond, John T.
Folder 48. Press Releases. UCC Office of Communication. 1978.
* UCC Office of Communication
* Post, Avery D.
* Hunt, James B.
* UCC support for Wilmington 10
Folder 48.1. Statement of Purpose.1978.
* Bray, Winfred
* First Christian United Church-Burlington, NC
Folder 49. Transcripts. 1972.
* Redmond, John T.
* UCC Executive Council
* Chavis, Ben
* trial of Wilmington 10
Folder 50. Transcripts. 1976-1977.
* Hall, Allen-legal statement
* Young, Andrew