THE GETTYSBURG CAMPAIGN AND THE RESILIENCE OF CONFEDERATE NATIONALISM
J. Patrick Creghan (Dr. Charles Irons) Department of History and Geography
This study aimed to distinguish differences in morale between the generals/general staff and the rank-and-file soldiers of the Army of Northern Virginia leading up to and directly following the Gettysburg Campaign. This question also has implications for broader debates about the nature of Confederate nationalism and the viability of the Confederacy. Some historians, such as Paul Escott and Drew Faust, have argued that Confederate nationalism began to wane by the end of 1862 and severely undermined the Southern war effort. Others, such as Gary Gallagher and Aaron Sheehan-Dean, argue instead that Confederate nationalism did not begin to decline until 1864, and only then as a result of battlefield defeats and not issues on the home front. In order to gauge the depth of commitment to the Confederacy of general officers, I examined their published correspondence (both military and personal), much of which was accessible in Elon University’s McLendon Rare Book and Special Collections. To find rank-and-file soldiers’ statements about Confederate nationalism, I examined manuscript collections at the University of North Carolina (Southern Historical Collection) and Duke University (David M. Rubenstein Library). I focused only on three North Carolina regiments from the Army of Northern Virginia (1st, 11th, and 26th) and select generals. For newspapers, I utilized an online database for The Daily Dispatch, which was located in Richmond, and UNC’s North Carolina Collection for The Daily Progress, which was located in Raleigh. I utilized these sources to corroborate the themes discovered in correspondence between the home front and soldiers. The generals, soldiers, and newspaper editors whose writings I consulted did not lose faith in the Confederacy as a result of the failure of the Gettysburg Campaign. My documentation of their surprisingly uniform commitment to the Confederacy is strong evidence in support of Gary Gallagher’s argument for the strength of Confederate nationalism. My findings show that in the summer of 1863 the Confederate people still believed strongly in their cause and their ability to be victorious. By showing that white North Carolinians still believed in the cause throughout the summer of 1863, this research suggests that Confederate nationalism was resilient, indeed.
HOW SEGREGATION ENDED SEGREGATION: THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF HISTORICALLY BLACK LAND-GRANT COLLEGES TO THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT
Zachary B. Fisher (Dr. Nancy Midgette and Dr. Janet Warman) Department of History
In 1862, in the midst of the Civil War, the United States Congress voted to pass the Morrill Act,which donated federal land and money to each state for the creation of a public college focused on agricultural and technical knowledge. In 1890, the passage of the Second Morrill Act mandated equal access to public higher education for black as well as white students. States could either integrate their original land-grant college or build a separate institution for black students. Seeking to preserve their highly segregated society, the majority of Southern states chose the second option. Although historians have long recognized that historically black colleges and universities were influential in the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 60s, the importance of the institutions developed from the Second Morrill Act has not been specifically studied. Through my research, I examined primary resources, including school newspaper articles and interviews of student leaders, as well as secondary resources to determine the impact of land-grant HBCUs. My research revealed that students at these institutions, primarily North Carolina A&T, Florida A&M, and South Carolina State, were crucial to the progression and success of the civil rights movement. The sit-in movement, which was revitalized by the Greensboro Four at NC A&T, provided black students across the South with an effective model for peaceful demonstration. This movement led directly to the formation of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, which gave student leaders from land-grant HBCUs the opportunity to garner national political attention through their efforts. These students also gained respect from adult leaders in the NAACP and often influenced the strategies of the national civil rights movement. Florida A&M students were the first activists to use prolonged imprisonment to their advantage, and NC A&T students popularized the use of appeals to patriotism and mainstream Christianity. Toward the end of the 1960s, SC State students exemplified the transition of the civil rights movement toward more aggressive actions. This research reveals that Southern states’ decisions to segregate public land-grant colleges actually contributed to the end of legalized segregation more than half a century later.
VOLTAIRE AND THE ENLIGHTENMENT RESPONSE TO SUPERSTITION
Jordan B. Greene (Dr. Michael Carignan) Department of History
The primary purpose of the research is to determine a beginning point from which to analyze the evolution of Voltaire’s philosophies and influences between 1733, when the Letters Concerning the English Nation were published, and 1764, when he published the Philosophical Dictionary. In order to establish this basis, the project involves a close reading of Voltaire’s Letters Concerning the English Nation searching for themes of religious criticism and superstition and juxtaposing the findings with those from a close reading of the Philosophical Dictionary searching for the same themes. Initial findings have demonstrated that in the Letters, Voltaire indicates clear skepticism and criticism of the established Christian order, especially Catholicism in France. His primary attack on religion is threefold. First, the Christian Church is horribly corrupt. Second, that it is incompatible with reason, and therefore the ideals of the Enlightenment. And third, that the Church emphasizes doctrine over morality, meaning that it does not encourage morality in its followers as long as they comply with the rites and rituals. This three-pronged attack also seems to be the crux of Voltaire’s argument in the Philosophical Dictionary, indicating that Voltaire stays true to his ideas and beliefs even thirty years later.
TO FIGHT AND DIE AS LIONS: JEWISH RESISTANCE IN WARSAW, TREBLINKA AND VILNA
David R. Lincoln (Dr. David Crowe) Department of History
It has been suggested by some that during the Holocaust many Jews simply went to their deaths like “sheep to the slaughter,” with the ruthless efficiency of Nazi Germany allowing these killers to send tens-of-thousands at a time to meet their grisly fate. With the number of murdered Jewish men, women and children exceeding at least 6 million, it does seem as though resistance must have been staggeringly slight, but this is simply not the case. From the ghettos, forests and extermination camps of Eastern Europe Jews fought for the survival of their friends, families and culture with fierce determination. My research seeks to dispel the notion of Jewish passivity during the Holocaust for all time, so that we may better understand this greatest of all human tragedies. As the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising is the best known of the three cases I have studied, I will not dwell on it during my presentation. Instead I would like to present the audience primarily with the story of the Treblinka uprising. Its setting and events perfectly illustrate the obstacles facing Jewish resisters, as well as their determination and desperation in overcoming these challenges. From the story of Vilna I will tell the fascinating tale of Jacob Gens and Abba Kovnar, who waged an intellectual battle inside the city’s ghetto for the hearts and minds of its inhabitants. Gens is a painfully tragic figure, and Kovnar an incredibly eloquent one. The two combine to offer a narrative that surpasses the very best of fiction. This extensive research project was made possible in large part by the Yad Vashem archives masive online catalogue of primary source documents from German and Jewish sources alike, as well as many outstanding books on the Holocaust.
THE EVOLUTION OF CHARLES DE GAULLE AS LEADER OF LA FRANCE LIBRE DURING WORLD WAR II (1940-1942)
Claire L. Mayo (Dr. David Crowe) Department of History
In the aftermath of the German conquest of France in 1940, Charles de Gaulle fled his homeland for Great Britain and entered the public light as the military and political leader of la France Libre. Le Musée des lettres et manuscripts recently released a large cache of de Gaulle’s official and personal letters documenting his efforts to establish his legitimacy from 1940-1942 as the internationally recognized head of la France Libre in London. Until that time, de Gaulle relied heavily upon British support and worked to sever the Allies’ trust in the Vichy government. The letters show his festering troubles with American political leaders as seen in the controversy over the French territories of St. Pierre and Miquelon off the coast of Newfoundland. French historians are just beginning to interpret the letters, which are largely unexplored by American scholars. My research is one of the first to use these letters and contextualize them with the current scholarship on Charles de Gaulle and la France Libre. The top-secret letters were released in 2011, but since there are no English translations available to the public, I translated a portion of the collection for use in my Senior Thesis. The principal goal of my thesis is to answer the question, “How did Charles de Gaulle evolve as a political leader and establish his leadership of la France Libre as the only legitimate fighting French force while in exile in Great Britain from 1940-1942?” The conclusions drawn from my extensive research show that de Gaulle’s insistence on French sovereignty clashed with American expectations for the contribution of St. Pierre and Miquelon to the Allied war effort. To enhance his authority, de Gaulle unified experienced French generals under his leadership so that his authority over them strengthened his credentials. In the end, these top-secret letters underscore Charles de Gaulle’s lack of political experience and consequential mistakes in his initial years of leadership, but the letters also reveal his evolution to become one of France’s greatest politicians.
THE NUREMBURG LEGACY THROUGH THE LENS OF THE JOHN DEMJANJUK LEGAL SAGA
Julia E. Okada (Dr. David Crowe) Department of History
The Nuremberg trials left a lasting legacy and precedent establishing legal procedures to bring perpetrators of crimes against humanity to justice. Yet flaws in this legacy stemming from the inconsistency in charges and convictions of such perpetrators have left questions as to how effective legal outlets for international criminal justice are to the realities of crimes against humanity and genocide. A case study of the three-decade long saga of the John Demjanjuk legal cases provides an historical reference point to conclude whether or not past and current domestic and international legal systems were and are capable of carrying out justice addressing crimes against humanity to all perpetrators and collaborators. By analyzing the John Demjanjuk legal cases in the United States, Israel and Germany from 1977 to 2011, and by evaluating contemporary movements in relation to international criminal justice and crimes against humanity, it can be said that the John Demjanjuk case was an exception, rather than the rule, to prosecuting low-level participants in crimes against humanity from a legal standpoint. The Nuremberg Trials failed to create a historical legacy of forming a modern international criminal justice system to indict all individuals, regardless of rank and their place of residence, for their role in crimes against humanity through sufficient legal means. Methodology of this research consults primary sources such as legal transcripts from these trials, supplementing the research with peer-reviewed scholarly bodies of work (journal articles, books, etc).
NC PIEDMONT DEBUTANTE BALLS 1960-1980: THE ROLE OF GENDER IN A SOUTHERN TRADITION
Kathryn J. Osborn (Dr. Mary Jo Festle) Department of History and Geography
Since their inception in the 19th century, debutante balls have been a venue in which traditional gender roles were celebrated in elaborate rituals amongst the elites in society. This was especially true in the South, where historians have characterized gender roles as more traditional and resistant to change. In the 1960s, American feminists criticized traditional gender roles and demanded more opportunities for women and in some places there was a corresponding decline in the popularity of debutante balls. The research question for this project asked whether there was evidence of any changes related to gender in two piedmont North Carolina debutante balls between the 1960s and the 1980s. Did feminism affect the Terpsichorean Ball and the Durham Debutante Ball? To answer that question, I examined materials in the archives of the Southern Historical Collection and the Duke Special Collections, including the Durham Debutante Programs from 1960-1980, the Terpsichorean Ball Handbook from 1975, photographs from the balls, and first-hand accounts from Durham residents during the time of the balls. I argue that there were some subtle changes: by the 1980s the role of marriage, motherhood, and the power structure between males and females that had been prominent within the debutante balls in the 1960s diminished due to women delaying marriage and motherhood for college and a career and changing cultural values about the roles of men and women. Attitudes towards beauty and service shifted only slightly due to changing cultural values, however. Although the balls contained to support some patriarchal values and traditional gender roles, the balls made small adjustments to afford women more opportunities that feminists desired.
“ . . . ONE OF THE REAL TRAGEDIES OF RECONSTRUCTION”: AFRICAN AMERICAN AGENCY AND THE WHITE RESPONSE IN NORTH CAROLINA, 1865-1877
Hollyn K. Geibel (Dr. Rod Clare) Department of History
After the Civil War ended in 1865, North Carolina was considered among the most progressive of the former Confederate states, due in part to its degree of Union support during the war and because it was one of the last states to join the Confederacy. Because of this, the federal government held few reservations about North Carolina accepting the recently freedpeople into its society and unifying with the Union’s ideals. However, during this time period known as Reconstruction, 1865-1877, this assumption proved false. Over the years, historians have been increasingly interested in how and why this was the case. Because of this development, historians have asked questions to try to understand North Carolina‘s unique Reconstruction experience: What did the newly freed slaves do to try to assert their new role in North Carolina society? How did white North Carolinians respond to these declarations? Were there sympathetic whites and if so, did any cross-racial solidarity take place? This research project tries to answer these questions using primary sources at the Duke University Archives, the Southern Historical Collection at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and the State Archives of North Carolina and analytical comparisons of secondary sources. The results indicate that African Americans in North Carolina tried to gain rights through their involvement in politics and social issues aided by their white political allies. The main roadblock to these rights proved to be social and political discrimination and violence by white supremacists, regardless of North Carolina’s initial Union sympathies. Through the Ku Klux Klan and other terrorist groups, whites attacked African Americans and their white Republican allies. In response, North Carolina governor started the Kirk-Holden War by building an army to fight against the violence. While this white supremacist discrimination was prevalent all over the south, it ended in the first ever impeachment and conviction of a governor in United States history. Because African Americans were prevented from making significant political advances, they focused on social issues, forming racially segregated churches and schools, so they would not have to remain racially inferior in all aspects of post-Civil War life.
THE ROOTS OF FRENCH PACIFISM IN THE GREAT WAR
Claire L. Mayo (Dr. David Crowe) Department of History
Though almost one hundred years have passed since the outbreak of war in 1914, historians continue to question and revaluate previous interpretations of the Great War. American historians either over-emphasize the United State’s contribution to the victory or blame the Treaty of Versailles for the rise of Hitler in an oppressed Germany. This view, however, supports a US-centric perspective and will therefore limit our understanding of the far-reaching effects of the Great War upon Europe and the world. To address this concern, the question posed by this study evaluates the French interpretation of the Great War and their understanding of its impact upon French politics and society. The research was conducted during my semester abroad in Montpellier, France, where I worked with scholars and French students to answer my question. The bulk of the research comes from the course Les relations internationals à la première guerre mondiale de la seconde guerre mondiale (International Relations from the First World War to the Second World War) taught by Monsieur MURACCIOLE. The scholarship reveals that the inferior position of France in Europe after immense personal loses during the war created a strong nationalistic sentiment among French leaders for the preservation of the country. The resulting peace treaties provided for the suppression of Germany’s power as well as the regulation of peace in Europe. The hopes generated by these clauses quickly deflated during the 1920s and 1930s when the League of Nations broke apart and the modifications of reparations created an economic crisis throughout Europe. Despite the ineffectiveness of the treaties, France adhered to a policy of demilitarization that Germany no longer followed. The intricate French political environment of pacifists, anti-socialists, defeatists, and communists inhibited this policy from changing in response to German militarization. Against such a backdrop of passivism, it is remarkable to see the persistent courage of General Charles de Gaulle to defy his superiors in order to preserve the nation. The Great War of 1914-1919 greatly impacted the French psyche, and while each leader looked to preserve l’Hexagone, some acted to avoid a fight while others labored to prevent a war.
SCHOLARS VS. SITES: ANALYZING INTERPRETATIONS OF REVOLUTIONARY AMERICA AT HISTORIC SITES IN BOSTON AND PHILADELPHIA
Cameron M. Shirley (Dr. Jim Bissett) Department of History
While academic historians like to think that their work shapes the public discourse about America‘s past, in reality, more Americans‘ understanding about the past is based on visits to historic sites than on scholarly historical monographs. In light of this fact, it is important to consider how closely the interpretations given at the historic sites Americans visit on family vacations match scholars‘ interpretations of American history. Furthermore, while scholarly historical interpretations constantly evolve, it seems that historic sites are much more static, portraying the celebratory interpretations of past decades. Through this project, I have explored the differences between public and scholarly historical interpretations for one important event, the American Revolution. This project began with an in-depth study of the scholarship of the American Revolution resulting in a historiographical essay. One key insight of my historiographical study is that scholarly interpretation is heavily influenced by the time period in which it was written. The second phase of my project consisted of traveling to Boston and Philadelphia, visiting the historic sites related to the American Revolution, determining the type of interpretation they present, and analyzing these interpretations in light of my historiographical research. Through my travel experiences and historiographical work, I concluded that historic sites tend to present an interpretation that is less sophisticated than those found in scholarly sources. Thus, I found that 57% of the historic sites I visited fall into the Neo-Whig interpretive theme that originated in the 1950s/60s, presenting a celebratory interpretation focused on the deeds of great white men in history. Even so, several sites demonstrate that it is possible to achieve interpretive sophistication, providing a dynamic and multi-faceted approach and examining the American Revolution from the bottom-up. The interpretations at historic sites are what the majority of Americans experience after high school history, proving the importance of presenting sophisticated interpretations of the American Revolution.
OUT OF OPTIONS: THE JEWISH EXPERIENCE IN SHANGHAI, CHINA DURING WORLD WAR II
Christine L. Swanson (Dr. David Crowe) Department of History
Between 18,000-25,000 Jews fled Europe for Shanghai between 1938-1945 to avoid Nazi persecution after China opened this port city to emigrants. While some were encouraged to leave by the Nazis, once World War II many fled to avoid growing Nazi terror in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. While some had visas, others did not, which mattered little to the Chinese, who accepted emigrants with or without official entry documents. Consequently, Shanghai became a haven for those who were running out of other options. However, refugees would not breathe a sigh of relief once they reached the city. Jewish refugees were forced into a small and overcrowded ghetto during the Japanese invasion of China. The ghetto only encompassed one square mile and housed approximately 20,000 refugees, along with thousands of native Shanghainese. Food, shelter, and jobs were scarce. Air raids and fighting on the outskirts of the city exacerbated the abysmal conditions. This project attempts to answer how Jewish refugees persevered through the tumultuous years of civil war and invasion that devastated Shanghai. A Jewish community still exists in the modern economic heartland of China, along with the remains of a Jewish quarter. Using Chinese and English primary and secondary documents to explain the interactions between Jews, Chinese, and Japanese soldiers, this project will thoroughly document the lives of Jewish refugees in Shanghai. Beyond that, the project will connect the legacy of the World War II Shanghai Jewish community to contemporary Jewish interactions in China. In addition, citing Chinese resources, the project will consider how China‘s accepting attitude towards Jewish refugees during World War II shaped the contemporary Chinese perspective of the Holocaust.