Elon University

The 2014 Survey: In 2025 – Killer apps in a gigabit age (Anonymous Responses)

This page contains only the anonymous written responses from Internet experts and stakeholders who answered this question in the 2014 Pew Research/Elon University Future of the Internet Survey. Some survey respondents chose to identify themselves; a majority remained anonymous. We share most of the anonymous respondents’ written answers here. Workplaces are attributed for the purpose of indicating a level of expertise; statements reflect personal views. To read the full report, click the image below.

Anonymous responses by those who answered this survey question

Link to Full SurveyInternet experts and highly engaged netizens participated in answering an eight-question survey fielded by Elon University and the Pew Internet Project from late November 2013 through early January 2014.

This survey question asked respondents to share their answer to the following query:

New killer apps in the gigabit age: Will there be new, distinctive, and uniquely compelling technology applications that capitalize upon significant increases in bandwidth in the US between now and 2025? Please elaborate on your answer. Explain why you think there will be hardly any change or tell what new tools and applications will excite people in the next decade and envision the kinds of personal connectivity and immersive media experiences that will seize the public imagination.

Among the key themes emerging from more than 1,400 respondents’ answers were: Experts foresee changes across all aspects of life as connectivity advances. Some said people’s basic interactions and their ability to ‘be together’ and collaborate will change in the age of vivid telepresence—enabling people to instantly “meet face-to-face” in cyberspace with no travel necessary. Some believe that augmented reality will extend people’s sense and understanding of their real-life surroundings, and virtual reality will make some spaces, such as gaming worlds and other simulated environments, even more compelling places to hang out. They expect that the connection between humans and technology will tighten as machines gather, assess, and display real-time personalized information in an ‘always-on’ environment. This integration will affect many activities—including thinking, the documentation of life events (‘life-logging’), and coordination of daily schedules. They predicts that specific economic and social sectors will be especially impacted; health/medicine and education were mentioned often. Some said new digital divides may open as people gain opportunities on different timelines and with different tools. Some said they expect that advances will be far more gradual for various reasons, saying that bandwidth is not the issue or saying that the US will continue to lag by 2025 because a widespread gigabit network is not easily achieved.

To read full official survey analysis, please click here.

To read credited responses to the report, please click here.

Following is a large sample including a majority of the responses from survey participants who chose to remain anonymous in making their remarks in the survey; some are the longer versions of expert responses that are contained in the official survey report. More than half of respondents chose not to take credit for their elaboration on the question (for-credit responses are published on a separate page). They were asked: “Will there be new, distinctive, and uniquely compelling technology applications that capitalize on significant increases in bandwidth in the US between now and 2025?”

A principal engineer for Cisco wrote, “These developments will occur first in other countries with more coherent infrastructure policies. One interesting class of applications will be large-group immersive-reality experiences, including social, sporting, educational, and business gatherings. Some of these applications will have game-like aspects, others will include (or simulate) work. These applications will allow people and organizations to offset the restrictions on travel that will emerge from increased energy costs.”

A self-employed software designer and policy researcher wrote, “It depends what you mean by ‘apps’—a term that annoys me to no end. Yes, I expect that a significant proportion of software development will continue to be indiscriminately resource-intensive, and increasingly so, without considering the economic or environmental costs, let alone the built-in exclusions. ‘New, distinctive, and uniquely compelling’—whatever. Each new thing builds on what came before it, whether we’re talking about Apple products, surgical tools, Angry Birds, Google Maps, or electric cars. Those adjectives describe not the products but how the products are marketed. You have developed a culture that has been primed to be sold to and sold out, and a ruling private industry that is phenomenally gifted at making the most of that and at continuing to perpetuate that. So, sure, Americans will likely think that they are encountering new, distinctive, uniquely compelling technologies that they can’t resist and must have and that they must convince all of their friends to buy.”

A leader of learning and performance systems at Pennsylvania State University predicted, “Hologram 3D, glass walls that embed computers will be common everywhere in our homes, many tools that will be dispersed throughout the home. Google contact lenses will aid us with augmented reality tools much more seamlessly, we’ll put our contacts on and start functioning for our day in that way.”

A pioneering academic computer scientist from Princeton University wrote, “Currently access to reliable high bandwidth is spotty. Some people have it at home, but we can’t rely on having good bandwidth everywhere at all times. The biggest change going forward is that we will have good bandwidth available more often. This will make new types of system architectures that assume connectivity possible.”

A tenure track professor at a US research university said, “The personal archiving of vast amounts of data about ones self will be something people can do with few barriers and resource investment. This will go beyond the ‘quantified self’ to include qualitative and rich data about daily interactions and activities in the form of video and activity capture to create daily data composites.”

An entrepreneur and business leader wrote, “Of course there will be killer apps. The gap between those who know of and can afford to use the killer apps and the rest will be greater and greater over time. The knowledge of technology and the way of thinking about reality for those who are immersed in technology will be a second language—even a second culture—shared globally. I also see a gap opening between those who know how to create those killer apps and those who are only prepared to use them intuitively without a metaview of architecture and meaning—technological builders, technological users, and the rest with multiple gaps between multiple cultures of relationship to technology.”

A media agency strategist commented, “Look back 10 years: no iPhone, no iPad, no Facebook, no Twitter. As technology evolves, the ability to deliver real-time digital experiences as real will increase; live events will be experienced anywhere in the world without leaving home.”

A professor of communication at an international management institute wrote, “I will virtually kiss my wife in New York from New Delhi before I leave for work in the morning.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “Unfortunately, I have to respond in the affirmative, which does not bode well for the citizens attempting to maintain/establish those controls they seek for their ‘private’ life. In the next 12 years the ignorant, uninformed, and uneducated will continue to view the so-called ‘apps’ as life benefits/enhancements. Little do many realize that by submitting to the interminable ‘rules’ these ‘apps’ contain, they are supplying the very data that will be controlling them into the future.”

An anonymous respondent predicted, “Entertainment—video choose-your-own-adventure-style apps. Data—ability to analyze massive data sets quickly and easily for lay people. Personal—even better video chat, et cetera.”

A usability engineer commented, “Most devices will morph into a single, or very few, computer-based devices that will function as entertainment, communication, education, et cetera. People will be saying things like, ‘Remember when we had separate phones, computers, TVs, and iPods, and we had to charge all of them?’ Apps will enable single devices to serve multiple uses.”

A research associate and doctoral student at the University of St. Gallen wrote, “I think one of the most significant applications to emerge will be embedded objects and extensions of our bodies. The Internet of things will evolve strongly until 2025. Furthermore, applications similar to Google Glass will evolve rapidly.”

An analyst for a central government institution in Chile responded, “Since any increase in bandwidth has created new, compelling technologies that used that bandwidth, it is likely that will happen again. Current applications will maybe hit a ceiling (there is a point in which our eyes do not need more bytes to see a movie or our ears do not need more bytes to listen a song); but new applications (anything that could make a remote server as responsive as local central processing units) could be used in work environments. After all, it is used currently if you log remotely into servers. (If I knew what immersive media experiences could seize the public imagination, I certainly could not be answering an online survey.)”

An independent academic research consultant wrote, “Apps seem to me to be one of the most over-hyped phenomena of the modern age. A lot of the buzz is clever marketing rather than truly life-changing innovations. I suspect that most of the ‘uniquely compelling’ technological applications are already with us, just perhaps not working as well as they will by 2025.”

A professor of information systems at University of Poitiers, France wrote, “The existence of high bandwidth in Japan or some urban parts of Europe has highlighted no revolutionary usage from or for the average public, only evolutionary ones, and the current deployment of LTE telephony in Europe is prophesied as a commercial flop.”

The director of an entertainment media coalition wrote, “Innovation has almost always trumped bandwidth and spectrum scarcity, but this dynamic may not last forever. Take for example, the mobile space. Verizon and AT&T growing a duopoly over the wireless market may drive up costs for consumers. Worse, these companies (as well as wireline Internet service providers like Comcast) are imposing caps, charging customers extra if they use more than a small amount of data per month. Of course, these companies would allow data delivered by their own applications and services (or those of their preferred partners) to not be held against caps. As Cardozo Law School professor Susan Crawford writes, ‘Data caps are excellent tools with which to make as much money as possible from an existing monopoly facility.’ That’s not good for competition, consumer pricing, or innovation. There’s also the issue of whether unlicensed spectrum is available to research and development that could usher in the next wave of networked innovation. Voluntary spectrum auctions and repackaging may create some opportunities, but that remains to be seen.”

The CEO of a technology company said, “We will see a significant amount of new tools and applications emerging to integrate with everyday life. Some of the best apps will include voice activated interactive platforms, personalized marketing, and advertising that is seamless in our everyday encounters. Video communications with supportive screen sharing and supplemental referenced attachments will also be seamless in our transportation, offices, homes, and mobile devices. The public will be excited about intelligent automation and the conveniences they provide. The ease of communicating, learning, sharing, shopping, and working with others across vast distances will seize the publics’ imagination. Security will be increasingly intelligent and automatic. Entertainment will be intuitive and multi-user friendly. There are far too many new tools and applications to list that will emerge and become a part of our everyday lives.”

A data specialist for a public opinion research company wrote, “Perhaps we’ll see the death of broadcast and cable television and entertainment—when the technology exists to allow people access to all television or movies on demand there will be no more reason for consumers to purchase bundled television packages. Cloud computing will get bigger, but again, data security will need to keep pace with emerging threats.”

An anonymous survey participant wrote, “Immersive environments will become even more compelling, and people will begin spending more and more of their time in these environments. A tipping point will be when a significant portion of our population begins not only to play in these environments, but also to work in them. As that happens, the need to interact with actual reality begins to diminish, which will have major impacts on its own. By 2025, we’ll see that start to happen.”

The president and principal consultant at UI Wizards, Inc., a product usability consulting firm, responded, “Word processors currently do spell-checking in the background. By 2025, they will do fact-checking in the background, perhaps drawing wiggly red lines under questionable statements. GPS units will show not only where you are, but also where all your contacts or friends are.”

An information science professional based in Minnesota responded, “Apps will continue to provide individual identification to the app owner and to aggregators. Biotechnology is a ripe area for apps: to extend the human senses, regulate implanted drugs, provide electrical stimulation, monitor biological functions, et cetera. As devices are increasing personalized, apps connecting us to governments are more likely: voting, lobbying, petitioning, as well as mandatory apps for emergency notifications, court-ordered supervision, and perhaps some more Orwellian scenarios for surveillance and control. The continual supply of information (and advertising) as told in Feed may well be on the horizon.”

A law school professor teaching in the areas of research and analysis wrote, “Google Glass is the first wave. The killer apps will control directly the interactions between humans. Thought process and the ability to make rational decisions based on past experience will drive society down. There will be so much social overload that normal interaction will fail.”

A director of university communications at a major university in Colorado commented, “Tools that are naturally intuitive will always have a better chance at wide-spread acceptance and use. Tools that are mindful in their goal and functionality for specific generational clusters also can succeed. Tools that minimize information clutter—while allowing individuals to believe they actually are in control of the threads.”

A lecturer and researcher at a public university in Australia commented, “Ability to store data in ‘wetware’—advances in GM technology and DNA sequencing and other research at the molecular level will enhance our ability to provide heaps of storage and also dynamic electronic capacities for data sending and retrieval speed. Automatic speech to writing editors, with selection for style (scholarly academic style, hard news style, op-ed style, epistolary style, narrative style), with sub-styles for each that are able to ‘learn’ what elements of those styles are preferred for each user as they correct the copy over time. In other words, one can dictate to a mobile device, which is then rendered to readable text in the appropriate style, uploaded to a remote server, which can later be further edited by the user to enhance the stylist software. Anyone who has studied language at the most rudimentary level will know that spontaneous speech is not the same as writing, for obvious reasons: online processing, people rarely extemporize in sentences, speech is often accompanied by gesture which is part of the meaning-making resources of that medium. Writing is crystallized and thus requires extra elaboration. Such editors will be part of the clothing, or wristwatch-like device, or spectacles of the user, dependent on how they like to conduct their lives or routine. They (may) also include a camera. All this data can be automatically streamed to a personal databank or drop box-like device on the Internet, and accessed from any device via electronic scan (EEG scan, posture scan, iris recognition, other biometric identification). Of course, if one likes only to ‘text,’ then 140 characters should still be free to send between packets. There could be a texting style therefore. After all, with enhanced mobile technology, data should become cheaper to use. It seems that public phones are going the way of the dodo, but I’d like to see holographic ‘phone’ boxes where we could connect full body (not of course truly a flesh meet) with our companions—thus saving on time and fuels needed for transport. No need for credit cards in this brave new world—all linked to our devices by biometric log in. Posture scanning in this case, since dead people still have irises and fingerprints.”

A CEO for a company that builds intelligent machines responded, “I am not sure if it will hit by 2025, but I would expect that one of the most sought-after forms of entertainment will be fully immersive experiences that stimulate all the human senses. With the new human-computation interfaces and gigabit bandwidth connectivity available in 2025, we will have the first versions of tools able to record and playback a full human life, minus the boring parts. Of course, we will be able to push our already considerable talent for make-believe on a large scale (the movies) to its natural end, and be able to craft dream-like narratives that will be so compelling that we’ll want to regularly check out of our daily lives for little burst of fantasy.”

A Web standardization professional wrote, “The combination of millions of new devices connected to the Internet, and the aggregation of data they provide will lead to an even richer mobile experience: mobile devices on steroids capable of seamlessly integrating information provided by a world of devices. The privacy issues that accompany this trend will also prove extremely challenging.”

The website manager for an Australian lobbying organization wrote, “There needs to be available bandwidth in the United Kingdom, China, India, and Australia for a new killer app to take hold in the same way that email did in the late 1990s or social networking and video on demand in the 2000s. I’m not confident that this bandwidth will be available globally, let alone in the United States. Existing apps such as video on demand [VOD] are sucking up bandwidth faster than it becomes available—it will take a long time for this to change.”

A professional educator wrote, “The mad rush to do ‘new things’ will give way to the realization that such are just innovative ways of doing commonplace things that have existed for centuries. The core, fundamental concepts don’t change, just the ways in which they are addressed and accomplished.”

The policy director for a large US-based technology company predicted, “The Internet of Things is coming, from home security, electricity and power on the Internet to remote monitoring of electric meters or whether trees are watered.”

A professor at Stanford Law School wrote, “3D immersive games and movies will become particularly popular.”

The head of the department of communication at a top US university wrote, “Wearable technologies and immersive spaces that simulate teleportation, permitting individuals to experience virtual environments with all senses, instead of just vision/hearing. Using Skype or videoconferencing with someone, for example, because of richer bandwidth (and relevant technological advancements permitted), will become a richer and more immersive experience (especially as screens become thinner, and, eventually, transparent projections).”

A program director focusing on ICT standards policy, Internet Governance and other issues wrote, “The most compelling and significant discovery will be ways to effectively double current spectrum capacity by ‘tacking’ against the waveform in a manner similar to the way a sailboat can tack against the wind. The net effect will be to nearly double the capacity of the ‘pipe’ by essentially creating an ‘anti-wave’ that can also be utilized to carry data traffic.”

The CEO of a software technology company and active participant in Internet standards development, responded, “Video conferencing has been ‘the killer app that will consume bandwidth’ since the 1980’s. However, it does appear to be gradually taking hold. By 2025 it seems likely that desktop and personal telepresence will be more advanced and more widely used. This would be facilitated by the use of ‘glasses’-style head mounted displays.”

The vice president of research and consumer media for a research and analysis firm responded, “With the rapid digitization and delivery of high quality video and large databases, we’ll have reached the last of all current applications that have been moved to the net. There are no kinds of information that are going to require large quantities of speedy bandwidth. Future applications will be relatively compact or about the size of current applications: imaging, 3D printer files, communications, and virtual reality.”

The principal software architect for a large Internet company wrote, “Video communications will advance greatly enabling extremely high definition fully immersive interactive environments.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “Remotely assisted operations in hospitals are already emerging; distance will play a lesser role.”

A senior lecturer at the University of California wrote, “The applications will be for businesses, not for people. I’m not sure this is what you meant; talking about ‘immersive media experiences’ already pushes the discussion in a direction that I think won’t be so important. Already the widespread use of 3D movie technology has had a dramatic effect of worsening movies, because the scripts are written with special effects in mind rather than plot or character development. Mostly the applications that matter will be about deploying information for the sake of industries. I have no idea how that will work, but that’s who needs gigabit pipes, not me as an individual. It would be nice if teleconferencing ever gets usable, though, because maybe that would cut down on air travel with its enormous carbon social cost.”

A Mozilla browser engineer wrote, “Gigabit-per-second links are not going to enable anything significant. Telepresence will be better, but not significantly so.”

A research professor of computer science at Georgetown University responded, “Our nascent asymmetrical bandwidth deployment in the United States means that by the time we get decent upstream bandwidth, most people will have moved on.”

A US federal government employee whose work involved Internet policy wrote, “People will soon be inundated with information and will demand less not more. If there is a killer application, it will be one that gives the user the prospect of very simply sorting through the information overdose.”

A digital media strategist at a US national news organization responded, “No doubt there will be new apps that capitalize on bandwidth increases, but they will be limited in comparison to bandwidth usage for providing entertainment.”

An Internet consultant from North America who has been active in leadership of the Internet Society wrote, “All transformative technologies go through a major impact phase and then settle down to incremental improvements (e.g., electricity, steam engine, computer). What you see today will be largely what you see in 2025 except a little faster and flashier with the odd innovation here and there. 2025 is 12 years away. Looking back 12 years nothing has really significantly changed with the Internet, except for increased speed. All the basic apps were in place by 2000.

A university research fellow wrote, “Bandwidth will be clogged with Netflix, Skype, and smart home technologies, so any increase will feel like a stagnation.”

An Internet pioneer who has been in the field since the 1970s wrote, “We have enough now!”

An anonymous respondent who works as a journalist wrote, “The quantitative change of everything accessible instantly will spark a qualitative one. We will become accustomed to everything on demand. Eventually, this will ask some pretty profound questions. Why buy a book/movie/music when it’s more convenient just to call up a copy? But I’m not seeing some shiny new app or thing to do, as different as more of the same may become.”

A post-doctoral researcher wrote, “Here I would have preferred a ‘maybe’ answer as well. The way I see it, increasing bandwidth is not a technology issue, but an economic one. Same actors who are fighting against Net Neutrality or peer-to-peer technologies will also be concerned about the increase in the bandwidth. Online piracy, for example, will be unstoppable and more the norm with increased bandwidth. Communication networks like AT&T and others will have reasons to fight change or at least negotiate it in their favor. Immersive media experiences definitely provide a huge potential for education, health, and communication. No doubt. Virtual worlds are being used for cancer patients in fighting cancer, or to cure shell shock for returning soldiers. The National Security Agency apparently suspected that virtual worlds and games are being used by terrorist networks.”

A distinguished engineer working in networking for Dell wrote, “I don’t know what these apps will be, but I do know they will be there.

A researcher and graduate student wrote, “The Google Glass project will introduce a new way of interacting with the virtual world. This technology will bring the idea of ‘invisible layers’ to our lives, which means we can see the virtual world while we are interacting in the real world. I think this will advance and we will always be connected to our online circles.”

A PhD candidate at the University of Southern California wrote, “There will be more virtuality and manipulability as seen in Iron Man, for example. Holographic projections of people will also be able to negotiate space via video conferencing, so it will be as though an investor in Dubai can go on a house tour in Beverly Hills. I also believe that 3D movies will be quotidian and viewable from mobile devices.”

A lecturer at a university responded, “Life logging will gain popularity. Video streams of all kinds of situations will become commonplace, not only by Steve Mann but ordinary people. Ease of storing would not suffice; without powerful, automatic indexing and tagging tools it will soon become impossible to access any specific events; if it all is stored in the cloud, handling the searches and storing and linking between identities, persons, and locations will need to be supported.”

The director of IT for a nonprofit organization specializing in urban health issues, responded, “I have no idea what they will be but I’m sure they will appear. They will be completely surprising but obvious in hindsight.”

A principal engineer at Cisco wrote, “Interactivity is only in its infancy. Imagine operating on a patient remotely. That is almost happening today. Tomorrow it will be substantially more effective.”

A professor of new media and Internet studies at a European graduate school wrote, “3D will become fashionable by 2025 with cameras and sensors that can create remarkable 3D communications in ways that were not possible before. I can’t give a precise example, but I have a hunch that is where we’re heading when it comes to communication.”

An independent scholar wrote, “The big problems we have are social—wars, poverty, global climate change. We need to work on those, but the political systems aren’t designed to. All of this technology is cool, but we have other things we must focus on.”

A researcher at a marketing firm doing work in the online privacy space responded, “Technological development doesn’t seem to be incremental. In my lifetime, the jumps have been significant as dial-up switched to high-speed Internet allowing for more activity to take place online, more streaming etc. I’m sure there are already innovators with ideas about what they could do if only they had the bandwidth.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “It’s not clear to me what the next killer app will be (if I knew, I’d be working on it), though history suggests that the twin drivers here will be entertainment and communication (either personal or community). We’re coming to the limits of how much bandwidth can be used by simple one-way video-on-demand: picture quality higher than 1080p is pretty much at the limits of usable perception.”

The president of a technology consulting company responded, “Most software (apps) for purchase will be licenses to access the tools online, and consumers will own nothing more than access. Microsoft Office 365 and games like Sim City are examples of this. This has been in the works for a very long time and will continue. Home computers and other Internet enabled devices will be more access points (almost like dummy terminals) that storage and software executing machines.”

A professor at a major US research university wrote, “Very likely, but I don’t know enough to be able to describe them in any way.”

A CEO wrote, “Imagery is generating most of the demand for bandwidth, and entertainment is currently the primary driver. We will soon exhaust the available microwave bandwidth unless we have a technology development that changes the model. What will drive this exhaustion is the ability of ordinary folks to transmit video in real time. The same people who revel in the ability to tweet meaningless drivel will want to do the same with their child doing something silly.”

A software engineer from Nigeria wrote, “The global spectrum stampede will increase and create a crisis for the new world as access demand for Internet protocol increases. The appetite of the human mind is inexhaustible! This is why the fundamental factor of conscious ‘Peace Architecture and Engineering’ became a strategic imperative for the always-on [AO] future world. New apps on innovations, nanotechnology, personalized movie world, e-health, e-government, and e-commerce will call the shots.”

A professor of telecommunications at Pennsylvania State University wrote, “The killer app (which will preserve wired networks) is low latency. Once speed is high enough and latency is low enough, everything can move to the cloud. All of our software, apps, games, audio visual content, etc. will be instantly accessible through ‘thin’ clients. If latency is low enough, it will be impossible to distinguish between local apps and content and remote ones. The ability to download and do everything in real time is the main killer app. Maybe someone will come up with gigabit apps that aren’t just based on speed, but for most of the things that most people do, 100 mbps is fine. Maybe someday I’ll have an 8K 3D holodeck that envelops me in a new interactive reality, but I doubt it by 2025. Someday, maybe, as it is not impossible. But not soon. And I wonder if it’s economic.”

The grants coordinator at an academic center for digital inclusion responded, “Most people are technophiles, so I imagine that rapid and considerable changes will be embraced, at the expense of privacy and individual safety. Some ‘killer apps’ may assist medical supports for those with diabetes or other chronic conditions.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “Killer apps are going to go beyond simple games, cookbooks, and social media. We are going to see apps that allow us to repair things at the touch of a finger (for example, if you need an oil change it can happen automatically), as well as apps that bring more to our fingertips and allow us to connect in more material ways (I need a copy of the Nicolay Gettysburg Address to discuss the properties of the paper, the ways the writing took place, etc, and will be able to replicate the exact document in 3D—which is where a lot of the power of apps will be—in the act of making.”

A professor at the iSchool at the University of British Columbia responded, “Lots more streaming (video, audio), cloud-based applications that run seamlessly, mobile devices that receive real-time feeds. To some extent we’re already there on that. Look to Skype to fail in favor of Facetime. Look to Netflix to succeed over cable.”

A director of an innovation center wrote, “Streaming 3D video will be popular. Much of this will depend on the quality (and price) of display technology.”

A college professor wrote, “Further advances will continue the ‘presence at a distance’ situation. Video messages, video chats with numerous people displayed ‘as if’ present in the same room or on the same screen, interactive capabilities with things at a distance using not only hand controls but body suits of various sorts in an immersive video field so it seems more like a person ‘is there.’ Possible advances in aural stimulation (directionality).”

A top leader of the Internet Society wrote, “I don’t think we can predict innovation between now and 2025. No one could have predicted the similar advances in the past period.”

The general counsel for an Internet domain name registry wrote, “Probably. Who could foresee the way the Internet has changed our lives? I would not venture a guess as to what the next killer app will be.”

A computer science and security professor at Purdue University wrote, “If I knew what the technologies were, I’d be investing and inventing them! Increased capacity always leads to new developments. However, issues of Internet protocol, privacy, security, and social stratification will all have an effect. Given the ossified business models of most Western telecom providers, I would expect that some of the real innovation may come from other sources.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “Young developers and startup culture are too focused on trivial social development. I think we’re in for an age of stagnation.”

A researcher responded, “So far grandchildren are the killer app—people communicating better has been the real driver of the Internet.”

A Web-standardization expert wrote, “Having more bandwidth is nice, of course—especially for moving-lots-of-bits applications like video and backup—but it’s the ubiquity of access, dare I say the ‘Internet of Things,’ that will change the next ten years, not its speed.”

An associate professor at a university responded, “There is too short a period before 2025 to make much progress.”

A research scientist working at a major search engine company, responded, “I began working on the Internet back in the 1970s when it was still the ARPANET and had a single-digit number of nodes.”

A retired software engineer and Internet Engineering Task Force participant responded, “Governments will take the phrase ‘killer app’ literally, using advances in telepresence, as well as omnipresent and easily subverted robotic technologies, to silence their opponents. Depending on their agenda, this may take the form of highly-visible drone attacks, or subtle ‘accidents’ with medical, industrial, or automotive robots.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “New apps will capitalize upon increased bandwidth, but they will continue to address the issues in the lives of the people who make apps. This means that they will still include dating apps but will also include new childcare service apps as young techies marry and spawn, as well as more education apps as their children reach school age. This is like the changes in baby strollers once men pushed them.”

A co-founder at Hayoka, a consultancy with practices in Internet Technology and Biomedical Engineering, wrote, “Yes, of course there will be killer apps between now and 2025. The proliferation of high-speed bandwidth will facilitate some of these killer apps. Rather than enthuse about the amazing inventions that will succeed in capturing public adoration, I worry about the data-driven energy crisis —- do we really need to harness the computational power of the entire 1969 Apollo 11 moon mission every time we consult Google to look up a recipe for cranberry sauce? The evolution of the automobile leveled off with vehicles that drive comfortably between 0 and 100 mph, with prohibitive price/performance/safety/ecology tradeoffs for faster speeds. Hopefully, the same leveling-off will occur for data thoroughput requirements. We need an ‘energy crisis’ or backlash to curb the excessive energy costs of computing.”

The chief executive of one of the key Internet infrastructure organizations responded, “Emerging 3D visualization will require enormous amounts of bandwidth but provide for applications previously unimagined.”

A member of the Internet Society chapter in Costa Rica wrote, “Better overall control of energy consumption of households and individuals, up to the management of a new whole decentralized system of small scale, clean energy networks.”

An associate professor of computer science at Columbia University responded, “Bandwidth is not such a bottleneck anymore. Solving algorithmic and AI problems is the bottleneck.”

A self-employed digital consultant commented, “Tech is fashion, so it is impossible to predict in the short term—longer term progress is incremental, so look for incremental improvements in key aspects of our lives that can be brought about by big data.”

The CFO for a major Internet company responded, “Besides streaming video and delivery of digital goods like books, music, and video, the next area of promise is telemedicine. The development of home digital appliances/diagnostics that allow a doctor to diagnose and virtually ‘see’ a patient should take care of most non-emergency medical situations.”

A social media communications professional responded, “Our devices will be smarter: phones, cars, appliances. Technology that brings solutions to simple problems is what excites people. More reach, greater access, and more connections to people.”

A professional writer wrote, “The combination of high bandwidth with parallel processing, and the enormous data stores accessible through distributed cloud architectures will allow personal applications to search, manipulate, and find connections between data in ways that are only just becoming possible now.”

A human-factors professional, educator, and member of the Association for Computing Machinery Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction wrote, “The increasing availability of Wi-Fi has allowed the integration of smart technologies into communication systems and now into consumer products. However, a lot of this technology has been actually alive in research labs for decades. So while change is coming its timeline is more extended than the next 10 years. Also, we are not so good at predicting what will be a killer app. As an oldie, I remember when we thought that office technology would be limited by difficulties pulling large wire through old buildings: not a problem with Wi-Fi.”

A professor at Swarthmore College responded, “Really this question turns on something other than bandwidth. The limits to consumption of streaming media and information are already less about bandwidth and more about the attempts of intellectual property owners to restrict, divide or extract value from access to culture. Growth in bandwidth has the potential to open new access to very deep archives of information, knowledge and culture and to make possible new forms of dispersed cooperation and community. Whether the possibility is realized will have to do with whether movements like open access succeed in the near-term future.”

A professor of political science at a US university wrote, “The United States is not densely populated enough for the infrastructure for such apps to be easily developed, unless it is wireless and even then the cannibalized nature of our multi-company wireless will make such killer app systems difficult to develop and implement.”

A telecommunications and Internet policy professional who works for a Japanese non-profit semi-academic research center wrote, “No, bandwidth is less important than pervasiveness.”

An anonymous survey participant who works as a senior executive for the US Executive Branch wrote, “We could see immersive telepresence plus our own personal Artificial Intelligences.”

A technology policy expert predicted “Apps that depend on several persistent video connections.”

A researcher and academic said new apps could include “Data shows—intersection between film, animation, graphics, data, real-time imaging.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “Killer apps include gesture technology (Leap Motion), which will eliminate glass interfaces for users.”

An educational technology consultant commented, “It’s hard to imagine where the technology will take us. However, the concept of ‘personalization’ will reach new vistas. People will have personal tutors, personal books, and personal anything. As a reaction to this high degree of personalization, there will be a move towards collaborative games, collaborative worlds where people need to socialize together.”

A self-employed survey researcher, statistical analyst, and research professor at the University of California at Berkeley wrote there will be new apps “Because it’s kind of a Moore’s law: if there is bandwidth, use will rise to it. Like freeways or shelf space.”

A knowledge expert and consultant based in Australia responded, “Every change in network connectivity has led to new associated technologies and businesses. I don’t see this change being any different. The obvious areas are virtual and augmented reality, real-time streaming video, big data analytics-as-a-service, entertainment, e-health—and, of course, porn.”

A CEO wrote, “We will witness applications related to almost everything.”

A retired professor and head of a communication technology professional association of academics wrote, “Teleportation of objects, that is psuedo-teleportation through fast 3D printing, will have an impact. More realistic virtual reality experiences, with improvements over currently crude avatars may become more developed and cost effective. Activities such as Skyping will become much more sophisticated such that individuals feel they are projected into the same common physical space as other participants. Robotic avatars with overlays of individual surface likenesses may allow for virtual meetings that are more action-oriented. Sensory circuits in the robots that have high bandwidth connections to remote individuals actual sensory receptors, or short circuiting them by direct brain interfaces will become available, although initially more expensive than the general public may prefer to pay for them. They will be likely used by they top-end of the social hierarchy. For example, those with expendable resources for it may enjoy projecting themselves to very unusual places for social experiences, sometimes with close social contacts, other times meeting new people. Destinations may be exotic places on earth or in space.”

A communications professor at a state university in California wrote, “One’s health will be totally monitored by wearable computing.”

A pollster and professor at a US university stated, “Predictive technology will advance.”

A management consultant wrote, “Useful applications have hardly changed since the first word processors and spreadsheets. The vast majority of current mobile device apps have very low to marginal utility and relatively high cost.”

The owner of a creative services group responded, “Apps are a gigantic fad and certainly a bubble has formed, at the moment it is almost impossible to keep up with senseless variations.”

A freelance writer commented, “There haven’t been any killer apps for more than 15 years, only marginal/incremental improvements in what exists.”

A technical manager who works with professional and financial enhancement tools responded, “People are getting tired of the technological changes and their impact. There may be reactionary forces impeding the changes.”

A self-employed communications consultant wrote, “The new tools/apps will more be about corporate interests (e.g., more-invasive consumer insights) than ‘exciting’ apps that seize our imagination.”

A technology journalist wrote, “I see most of the app development going toward bigger and better entertainment, not something that is radically improving or changing the lives of the populace. So the wealthy will have ever-more-elaborate entertainment but we still won’t be solving social ills.”

A professor of new media at a major university in the United States wrote, “There are no economic incentives to increase bandwidth, and it is increasingly provided by just a few dominant players who have no incentive to create additional suppliers.”

A former technology policy advisor the US Congress and the Clinton Administration on technology who now works for a Fortune 20 communications company wrote, “Incremental change is expected. There has been no transformative tool since 2007—iPhone. Apps will become more video intensive and interconnected but most will add little to no value except for its creators.

A principal statistician at the American Institutes for Research wrote, “One likely application is artificial intelligence-controlled transportation. It is not just robots driving cars, but their ability to coordinate.”

A research assistant at the Polytechnic University of Portugal wrote, “As with every technological advancement, new uses appear. Due to large increase in bandwidth, you will start carrying thin clients and accessing to cloud-based services, where you can search the Internet for anything in minutes, where you can take a picture of something, render it in 3D, change the design, and pick it up later in a 3D printing store.”

An active scholar of online communities with a PhD wrote, “Working will become an entirely different experience. New productivity and interaction applications will help us take our workplaces anywhere. This is already happening, but it will continue to happen to even greater extents.”

A research scientist at the University of New Hampshire predicted, “Video will take off.”

A professor in a school of informatics and computing at a major university in Indiana wrote, “I don’t have any insight on this, but given the pace of development in this area, I imagine more advanced apps will be coming.”

A professor and center director at a major university in the UK commented, “Every year or two, this has been the case. These innovations will continue.”

A professor at The New School, based in New York City, commented, “I don’t know what they will be, but they’ll be here. A decade ago very few were predicting apps at all. Pretty soon everything that one can imagine will have ‘an app for that.’ The instant orgasm app will be very popular.”

An information science professional based in Connecticut commented, “If you make bandwidth, people will figure out how to use it! Streaming will be better. More households will be connected. It will be like electricity. We won’t think to live without our devices.”

An Internet and society academic researcher wrote, “Gigabit ethernet has been around since last century. Think of what you can already do on a gigabit local network, and now imagine that on the Internet.”

A research analyst with a survey research firm responded, “Social media will continue to reinvent itself, but the next form will always depend on the user, so I can’t even begin to imagine what the purpose of the app will be. Games will continue to be popular apps as well, unless video games moves onto another medium. If that doesn’t happen, it seems entirely possible people will play games on their mobile technology that are similar to, or better than, the games people play on consoles today.”

A survey research professional who has worked for decades for government, academic, and commercial organizations, commented, “Gigabit connectivity— I don’t know. News before it is created? Pre-written disaster stories, prescriptive election outcomes, even manipulative campaigning—where press releases are poured out in new multimedia formats to groom the public using rich sensory cues that either encourage or discourage them from going to the polls on election day (music, light, smells, hyper weather, and traffic reporting all coming to a head).”

A postdoctoral researcher answered, “This is mere speculation, obviously, but I’m inclined to answer ‘yes’ despite a wide range of pessimistic assumptions. For instance, I expect incumbent information and communications technology companies to stand in the way of radical innovation, and I also do not see the United States make significant progress in terms of bandwidth, at least when compared to other nations. And yet, despite the fact that I think the time for radical Internet innovation is over, I find it hard to imagine that the next twelve years should not bring about some kind of wide-ranging change. However, I imagine those innovations to be the sum of mere incremental changes rather than one radical new technology.”

The manager of one of the largest public library systems in the United States wrote, “Apps will facilitate an increasingly personal experience by more effectively refining the information that comes to the user. As the universe of the Internet grows, users will become more interested in filtering out those parts that are not appealing and getting faster, easier access to the parts that are. This would include apps that make suggestions or recommendations with greater accuracy.”

The project coordinator for an environmental consulting firm commented, “I can already look at rocks on Mars from my living room. Maybe I’ll be able to tell a rover to kick some Martian rocks.”

A retired information science professional responded, “Education will see a huge change as more ‘online’ applications become widely used. The change will be most evident on the college and university level as a way to cut costs and make college more affordable.”

A volunteer and artist commented, “As an artist I am seeing the downfall of anything ‘great.’ Many apps now do everything for you—and it will just continue. Language is changing—because of ‘texting,’ with Skype, and talking apps—one doesn’t have to write at all anymore. Art is becoming more and more robotic—some using very little imagination, some losing all humanity. The new ‘elite’ just wants to get patted on the head. Groups of nonprofits are trying to outdo each other in who does more. Totally deciding what they want as opposed to what is needed. Already you can see less contact. People are not talking to their neighbors—they are texting each other, even if in the same room. Medical apps are making it where you do not need to go see a doctor as much—which for many seniors is their only contact with humans. Not everyone has a smart phone of an iPad. Paperback books are being replaced with e-books—shortened versions of a story. Children are on computers to learn basics by clicking in a circle, alone in a space. The tools that will excite some, more online task masters—so that they can enjoy more wine tasting events, while doing fundraisers to save the people who have nothing.”

A former executive at a major technology company responded, “Now, social entrepreneurs are involved in positive uses of the Internet. With significant increases in bandwidth that can support ubiquitous video conferencing, there will be a variety of changes in how people interact with each other and work together—and where and how they live.”

A gaming, technology, and youth services consultant commented, “There could be Second Life-ish stuff rendered via mobile tech—with a tiny device or wearable device, like a bracelet on your wrist projecting a 3D, full-color digital image that you can manipulate and walk around in.”

An information science professional specializing in business and health sciences wrote, “Greed for monetization of bandwidth expansions will either provide major opportunities or impediments to universal access. The Internet was founded upon the principle of ‘free’ and for the good of all humanity, yet corporations are trying to find ways to take that away by end-user license agreements or legislation.”

An information science professional based in Berkeley, California, wrote, “I cannot begin to imagine what killer apps will become ubiquitous. I fear that it will be something like that described in books like Feed, Ready Player One, or The Circle. The notion of a single, dominant digital sphere in which we all act and engage worries me because of the homogenizing effect they might have. I hope that the killer apps will be things that encourage diversity, not homogeneity. That means I want killer apps that speak to smaller parts of our beings and societies. Ravelry, a super-app for knitters is a great example of such a thing that I can’t imagine my life without, but that a great many people have no knowledge of. Whether my hopes or fears will be realized remains to be seen.”

A quality analyst who works for Google commented, “Data will be delivered wirelessly to over a dozen devices in the home by 2025. One only has to look at the penetration of other consumer devices like radio and television to realize that everything in the home can be wired.”

A higher education administrator responded, “Of course there will be something we can’t yet quite describe. One thing to remember is gigabit connectivity won’t come to us overnight. There are still millions in this country that don’t have high-speed Internet access. The success of a Google requires almost ubiquitous access in the same way. Once we’re all connecting at those speeds? Will that happen by 2025? There will be ‘new, distinctive, and uniquely compelling’ technology with that connectivity—but it will only have a Google-like impact once that level of connectivity is more common than not. And what sorts of technologies might appear? The impact will be on what and how much you can carry­—and how quickly. So, there will be advances in communication apps. The potential not only to see, hear, watch the entire world—but to make things happen around the world from our desktops and tablets (or whatever we call our gadgets in 2025). That’s both exciting to imagine and frightening.”

An information science professional based in Colorado wrote, “Urban areas will continue to improve, and services such as Google Fiber will continue to grow and improve in speed. Given that, the way services, education, entertainment, et cetera are delivered will change dramatically. The infrastructure cost to push this connectivity to non-urban areas will be prohibitive and create an even greater digital divide between urban and rural communities. This leads to further inequity in education and job preparedness for rural communities—and, I am sure, added resentment from rural areas towards urban areas.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “There will be increased personal video streaming and more surveillance.”

An anonymous survey participant responded, “We will see pocket medical aids such as heart monitors, fever detectors, seizure detectors, and blood pressure and glucose monitors. Gadgets will be imbedded in clothing or inserted in the body. Entertainment will become more and more isolated and no longer a group event. People will be overwhelmed with photographs of their loved ones’ restaurant meals. International communication will be augmented via translation services.”

An information science professional responded, “There will be advances in supercomputing in particular, and global collaborations.”

An anonymous survey participant responded, “There will, inevitably, be huge advances both in the capacity of networks and in the actual amount of data those networks will carry, but the inequality of distribution of such capabilities throughout society will only increase. Bandwidth increases will be concentrated in larger, urbanized centers and in leapfrog areas, places where a lack of prior infrastructure investment and the consequent vested interest in keeping that investment going allows a new, disruptive technology to move in. (Think of parts of Africa or Asia which had no copper wire telephone service but now have fairly robust mobile or Internet networks.) There will neither be the money nor interest in replacing the whole Internet, phone, cellular, and cable TV structure we now have with a gigabit network. As for new apps, to paraphrase Field of Dreams, ‘If you build it, they will come.’ New applications will be created to take advantage of the increases in capacity. In fact, there will be so many apps that the market for them will be something like the current fragmentation in the app stores or on cable television. It will be increasingly difficult to find apps and the advantage will accrue more to the biggest players, the occasional breakout app notwithstanding.”

An anonymous strategic intelligence analyst on digital, technology, and telecom issues for a large advertising and marketing company responded, “There will be some important new apps, but I don’t know what they will be. A lot of changes, though, will be incremental. And there may not be enough increase in bandwidth to support and make affordable everything we would like, even with the apps and services we know today.”

An anonymous organizational consultant, researcher, and adjunct professor with a PhD responded, “Surely there will be holographic types of entertainment and communication to the degree that our wireless gadgets will seem cumbersome and clunky—how funny we used them.”

The head of a department in a state government agency responded, “Yes, but only if the digital divide is truly bridged. There are two digital divides: rural versus urban and rich versus poor. Rural areas do not yet have bandwidth because the investment is so high and economic returns are so low. Those who are poor are continually more and more neglected and left out of digital advances, especially those whose poverty is the result of poor education and lack of basic literacy skills. In many ways this disenfranchisement is getting worse as government agencies—even those who are supposed to serve the poor—ignore the lack of access and ability to access services.”

An information science professional wrote, “There will probably be more competitors to Netflix, Spotify, and the like that can capitalize on higher bandwidth to deliver enormous streaming files. Things like video Skyping or FaceTime will become more commonplace; however, use of the above programs will probably be limited to those who can afford gigabit connectivity. The Internet will probably become more subdivided into economic classes of those who have good, reliable, high-speed connections and those who do not, or who rely on places like libraries or cafes to access it.”

A CIO in higher education wrote, “From a world perspective, by 2025 a minimum consistency of bandwidth will be available in every corner of the world. While this technically won’t allow killer apps that use increases in bandwidth this will allow apps to work well across the world. Specifically in the United States the same will happen in rural areas and every acre of land. This will allow social aspects of apps to be the norm similar to the telephone many years ago.”

A retired defense systems executive, electronics and computer engineer, and IEEE member responded that there will be advances in “Telemedicine, remote conferencing, search, distributed education, and virtual travel will become more common. Television will migrate to the Internet.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “I am of the impression that the medical professions will benefit most significantly from these enhancements, specifically the transmission of patient-specific, real-time data and imaging.”

A former DuPont electrical engineer wrote, “One area I see vast improvement in is the information simply available via the internet. More and more as one ‘Googles’ something, better and better information and resources are becoming available. The ability to have information to make decisions, figure things out, etc. is expanding. I believe we’ll be better at predicting things like the weather based on past experience. Learning, I suspect, will transition to Internet based from general schools and such with universities being for learning things that I consider typically human—like music, art, etc. So I think the killer apps will be in communicating with others and having access to information about were we are, what we want to know, were we want to go immediately available.”

A multiscreen shopper analyst for eBay wrote, “I imagine more 3D development—printers and imaging. I could see taking a trip to Europe or the Grand Canyon and wearing a Google Glass-type device that captures everything and allows you to play it back just like you were there. I imagine everyone owning a 3D printer so that you buy a gift online and send to someone where it gets printed on the spot, in their own home.”

A futurist, consultant, and industry analyst commented, “Personalized video detection apps will proliferate—facial recognition for smart phone users can already see that now—the question is how affordable will the data infrastructure be for individual users (versus companies).”

A retired management consultant for a large international corporation wrote, “Bandwidth increases are just now beginning to increase substantially and will enable significant innovation in software applications for the general public. Virtual realities/virtual vacations will become commonplace. Linkage between human and machine communication will increase exponentially.”

The CEO and general manager for a US public broadcasting organization operating radio and television stations and associated digital platforms wrote, “The explosion of creativity in this area over the past six years will only continue.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “I imagine wearable technology will be the new norm, and that it will interact with the objects all around us in a way that results in productivity, more fun, and maybe even greater safety. The subjects that excite us now like, travel, family, art, entertainment, and shareable commodities will continue to seize our imagination. The world will be smaller as the physical and digital worlds come together in new and exciting ways.”

A retired educator wrote, “There will be some significant change, as human mental processes are allowed to guide the activation of certain technological processes. As more is learned about DNA, individuals could be fitted with devices that take ongoing measures, to provide feedback about body processes/functions. The individual could monitor and decode their situation, or a central medical database could be used for the purpose. Advanced versions of ‘Google Glass’ could dramatically change the ways in which we look at our world.”

An academic administrator and former foundation executive with responsibility for information technology commented, “Digital agents—the wearable internet—that we will always have with us can only get better. Medical advances may make deafness and blindness and paralysis and other human ailments less disabling. Cable companies will have to become full streaming services or partner with Netflix and Amazon, who will be providing more and more original content. More meetings will be held as videoconferences. Tablets will become more like full-fledged laptops, with complete versions of software, rather than the limited apps now available.”

A professor at a research university wrote, “Given the rate of invention in terms of bandwidth and apps over just the last two or so years, I have no doubt that it will rapidly expand. However, I cannot keep up with the many new apps now, let alone divine what will come next month. Too many young people are entering these fields for it not to develop rapidly.”

The Web marketing manager at major Chicago academic medical center wrote, “Health tools should get more complex, compact, and on-demand. More people will be able to use devices at home to process or send data for evaluation. Hopefully cable TV as we know it will be a thing of the past, and users can select and pay for the media they want, rather than having to fund the deadwood.”

A self-employed digital consultant based in Sao Paulo, Brazil wrote, “Everything will be in the cloud, so if the bandwidth doesn’t increase it will be a disaster!”

An information science professional concentrating on the healthcare field wrote, “New gigabit killer apps will become available to enhance educational technology resulting in learning being more creative, participatory, and fun. Thus, I hope it will result in higher education using gigabit being available to a more diverse group of citizens. I also believe entertainment will continue to be enhanced by the increased availability of greater bandwidth. The key in my opinion will be access issues. Will the cost be within reach of the ‘average’ American?”

A marketing executive working in the high-tech industry since the early 1970s wrote, “Digital convergence will move closer to reality, where all appliances and present day communication devices will become one. Thus, anything currently performed by phone, fax, TV/Radio and Web conferencing will be able to be performed on new technology platforms. Improvements in audio capture will enable voice recognition to be used in place of remote controllers and or keyboards. Texting, messaging, control of appliances, etc., will all be controlled by voice recognition systems (with the option to provide closed captioning services) or saved document foldering. I suspect Google and/or Microsoft will invest heavily in such technologies making virtualization even more robust than exists today.”

An information science professional commented, “Media will be able to harness a ‘you are there’ experience for movies, television, and especially games. 3D in the home will be available. Being a player-character in a game, and acting the scenes yourself through your hands and visualizing the actions with your eyes, not just using a controller, will become the new normal. Having a TV program or movie react to where in the scene you are looking.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “An increase in bandwidth as well as security improvements will usher in an explosion of creativity and connected people in 2025. Everyone will find a vital reason to be online, not only because of the consequences of being left out, but also because of the comfort technology applications will bring into their lives. In education for instance, both synchronous and asynchronous learning and teaching will continue to revolutionize the way we educate. In 2025, classroom sessions can be permanently available to students and teachers.”

A researcher for a large US-based technology company specializing in understanding user-facing impacts of technology wrote, “I have no idea, but I would guess that it will be entertainment related.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “People will become more aware of their health and the management of it now that it is costing them and they can see it. So all the new apps to monitor your health will become normal procedures.”

A social media consultant responded, “Apps that make us more mobile, more efficient, and fuel green initiatives.”

An associate professor of public relations and journalism in New York predicted “Data mining for individuals.”

A technology usability specialist wrote, “Apps are very stagnant. I work in the mobile space and we will need something more accessible and ubiquitous in our daily lives.”

A freelance Internet journalist, researcher, and editor commented, “As broadband access is widened and improved in the United States, this field will explode. I see it affecting virtually every facet of life. I’m expecting fields like medicine to especially be impacted, with the current office treatment model, which is already outdated, replaced with enhanced video conferencing, lab profiles done with digital pills, and more options. City operations, infrastructure maintenance and development, police/fire and EMS services, food services and delivery, and electrical grids will all be enhanced.”

A research scientist for Google commented, “We will likely have much better telepresence, used in everything from customer service to remote workplaces.”

An editor and consultant with Innovation Watch said, “The Internet of Things will enable real-time transactions between intelligent devices that will change the way the world works. Self-learning robots will use the Internet to share knowledge, exponentially accelerating the acquisition of machine intelligence.”

A leader working to implement the National Health Portal of India commented, “Essentially people may not have to leave home for any purpose other than vacation. All possible daily transactions will be possible from home.”

A professor of communication at the University of Southern California and well-known researcher of Internet uses and users wrote, “I am sure we will see such changes. I have no clue what they will look like.”

A leader at the Network Information Center in Mexico wrote, “No, most of them will be scrap apps… less than 0.01% will take advantage of new technologies and will be widely known.”

An Internet business consultant wrote, “Streaming video (movies and TV shows) will replace TV. The movie industry will be nearly dead.”

An anonymous respondent commented, “Bandwidth is already enough in many places but online applications will combine with pervasive automation in a way that some people might not imagine life without a mobile device. Think about Google and Facebook controlling all our home automation, everything we eat, everything we buy, everything we see on TV might be controlled by companies dedicated to online commodities. Did I mention privacy might not be a concern anymore?”

A freelance technology writer and editor for leading US publications wrote, “All the networks we rely on and the embedded technology that will be spreading into every aspect of our lives will need a big fat pipe connecting us to the Web to work. Parts of New York are already making a serious switch to fiber after Sandy. New applications of old tech, such as Google Glass, will definitely seize the public imagination. That example and other wearable tech will be refined and perfected, but it won’t rock anyone’s world without the bandwidth.”

An executive in a consulting firm advising on change management responded, “Many of those apps already exist, but what will change is the number of people who have figured out how to use them more effectively. The value is in the connections more than the technological availability. So, one great killer app is one that would allow me to manage my home—lights, refrigerator, oven, security system, etc. I know this app exists, but even though I’m neither a Luddite nor a techno-junkie, I have not yet figured out how to use this to advantage. Also, apps that are so simple and intuitive that even elders in elder care are not intimidated by them—this will be a way to keep in touch from a distance.”

An anonymous survey participant responded, “Yes, and I think it will happen with a Richard Florida-style twist. Developers in the Google Fiber communities will begin testing the limits of what can be done commercially and personally with high bandwidth connections. As businesses and individuals flock to those communities to take advantage of the advanced technology only available with gigabit connections, other communities will realize that to stay competitive they will have to open the floodgates, too.”

A PhD candidate at the University of Quebec in Montreal, Canada wrote that there may be, “Neuroscience development and connection with quantic computing and networking.”

The manager of channel partners for MindMixer, providing online town hall meetings that connect local government and civic organizations to constituents, commented, “The multimedia, entertainment, and news industry will lead the wave of ‘killer apps’ and will deliver consumers on-demand, highly customized entertainment and news.

An anonymous respondent wrote, “The boundary between the real and digital world will continue to blur.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “There’s always a better virtual mousetrap.”

The director of corporate development for a NASDAQ-listed Internet company commented, “Everything will be with you all the time. Or at least accessible to you at all times.”

An education administrator commented, “As online devices allow us to use digital augmentations in the world, our need for new apps and bandwidth will increase. Online health monitoring of wireless pacemakers or remote control of insulin injections or quick field readings on concussions or bone fractures at the high school hockey game. Health care is too expensive when people have to go to the clinic to get treated. Also, education is going online and the need for tools which allow for individualization are already attracting major investment. The idea of the app is probably less important going forward in terms of the idea of ‘killer apps,’ while the notions of service or environment or reality will become more descriptive of what is coming next.”

An Internet pioneer and longtime National Science Foundation employee wrote, “One likely class: apps that link easily to intelligence in the cloud such as IBM’s Watson for medical diagnosis and soon many other topics of interest. Also, more than likely there will be entertainment apps that further anesthetize a complacent public. There could be apps that act as adjuncts to health delivery systems, e.g., mobile apps like heart monitors, but only if the system itself is changed to make those apps count.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “In the scholarly realm we’ll see advanced collaborative tools that allow the manipulation of large datasets much faster and by more people than is common today. Visualization will be another growth area, as tools are developed that can produce results in minutes as opposed to hours or days—with the results being viewable and able to be manipulated via the Web. Aside from that, we will continue to see advances in gaming, with next-generation games and consoles approximating the level of visual and narrative spectacle we have long enjoyed in film and television. Also, augmented reality will go mainstream, with services such as automated text translation, object labeling, and crowd sourced consumer advice being available to consumers who purchase usable and intuitive devices that have not yet been developed.”

A 30-year veteran of software design, testing, and deployment for the US Department of Defense commented, “I don’t know if this is available now, I haven’t seen it, but consider real time involvement with a site. If you were to go to any site in the world (pyramids); if you were to go to any museum in the world (National Portrait Gallery); if you were to go to a music venue (LA Philharmonic); or if you were to go to a stately home (Chatsworth) I would love to have a real time experience. I would like to hear the symphony live on my computer; I would like to tour in 360 degree each and every room in a museum or stately home in real time; I would like to take my time and tour, pausing in each room to circle and zoom in on each painting in real time. Each of these experiences could be expanded with written information or curator video or narrative. Use this application on those picture/video areas that use the most bandwidth, use this for cultural education.”

A PhD student and Internet researcher wrote, “As part of new biological and physical research more bandwidth will be required to transfer more complete human experience, not only voice and video … it can be either full sensory experience or even things that are new and totally imaginary such as feelings, thought, dreams, etc.”

A director of market intelligence at a major communications networking company responded, “It will all be about tracking—people, places, actions.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “A new compelling technology (increased bandwidth) by 2025 opens many opportunities for those who both feel easy with it and know how to use it. I can imagine that many electronic entrepreneurs will find many opportunities that many who don’t have that familiarity with technology won’t be able to see. Of course, the flip side is that with a few who know how to capitalize on the wider bandwidth, there will be many who don’t. If that is the case, and I think it will be, we may find a bigger cavern between those who have, and those who haven’t. I’m comforted in my forecasts by what a group of famous scientists said in 1875 on what major cities of the world would look like in the year 1900—Every major city in the world will be inoperable by 1875 standards because each will be filled with at least ten feet of horse manure.”

An anonymous survey participant responded, “More and more seamless interactive involvement for work and performing arts could be a possibility. Just as gaming has allowed for more personal involvement in the game, new apps could allow involvement in performances including live performances of music or theater. You would be an integral part of the performance sharing the stage and the emotion with the actors or the musicians.”

An information science professional responded, “Honestly, I cannot even imagine where this might evolve by 2025! I’m only 60, but I remember driving cross-country with no GPS, no cell phone, and only occasionally encountering another vehicle or a pay phone. At that time, I could not have imagined continuous connectivity, let alone apps to amuse, inform and assist me. Perhaps the penultimate killer app is the one that will predict other killer apps!”

A retired senior analyst for the IT department of a major insurance company wrote, “This is ‘perhaps’ more than ‘yes.’ What I do see is the continuation of the paperless trend, and this could also become significant in fields like healthcare. I do not see the multiplication of idiotic TV channels and social networks as killer apps. What may be significant are better surveys of the road and train communications, thus increasing the capacity by better prediction and guidance. Whether this will be a killer app, I ignore.”

A research scientist for a major American media company responded, “There will be affordable and ubiquitous 3D, holographic type images by then. The porn industry will probably lead the way.”

A distance-learning specialist for a government organization wrote, “Cable companies will be long gone unless they figure out a way to compete with streaming media. Watching media over the Internet will increase bandwidth. I also think that sporting events will have several streaming media features which will increase bandwidth. Schools will increase the use of bandwidth. And shopping for everyday goods via the Internet—like ordering milk to pick up at a drive through window on the way home will use more bandwidth. Unless of course they find a way to make 3G/4G/LTE way cheaper.”

A state government library advisor commented, “We will record every aspect of our life. Appropriate music will accompany each of our actions —like a movie. Like a smart TV or refrigerator, our own organs will let us know their status or needs by devices we wear or are inserted our individual brains will be mapped to make thought writing more feasible and more a security risk (probably further away than 2025 though). We will be tracking our food as it is grown or raised—-inadvertently creating more vegetarians. All public education will be by master teachers who connect to all students across the country —local teachers will become tutors only.”

A new-media communications specialist at a public university responded, “I am wary of gigabit being available universally and also in an affordable manner. I see this as a technology available to only the very wealthy or urban resident. It is 2013 and a good chunk of my state, despite what the provider maps say, is relegated to modem dial up. Broadband is a distant hope—can’t even imagine gigabit. There is a huge technology disparity and deficit in rural America and in low-income populations. But as a pipedream—I feel everyone will be watching their programs whenever they want—education will be completely transformed and more global. Learning multiple languages will be ordinary.”

A freelance science/medical writer and communications director for a state government agency commented, “The killer apps will come in fields such as medicine and personal health care—that’s where the money is as Baby Boomers age. Additionally, I think apps will increasingly isolate users from their physical community but increasingly open up virtual communities, which may be more important to the user.”

An employee of the Network Information Center wrote, “Seems like wearable technology is unavoidable, even if the current early-stage solutions are flawed.”

The chief counsel for a major foundation responded, “There will be no significant increases in bandwidth in the United States by 2025. Where there have been attempts to increase bandwidth these have been stymied by the incumbent operators through the political system at both federal and state levels. The Federal Communications Commission has been captured by incumbent network operators for a decade or more. An example of capture at the state level is provided by North Carolina. Several cities in North Carolina began providing broadband. The North Carolina legislature, acting at the behest of the cable companies passed a law prohibiting the citizens of these cities from choosing to have their cities provide broadband. There will of course be a proliferation of new, distinctive, and uniquely compelling bandwidth dependent killer apps but they will be available only in countries that have the political will to increase bandwidth, such as countries in east Asia.”

An anonymous respondent said, “It’ll be a tight deadline, reliant on shaky things like strong local economics and political will, but by 2025 I expect businesses will have pushed many cities and towns to adopt better fiber networks and push what’s possible up a level. I imagine things like screens that can sense your mood by watching your face and adapt programming to fit it, heavy interactive games that take in real time data from thousands if not millions of players, cars that know instantly when there’s been an accident to avoid and how best to avoid it.”

A lecturer at the University of St Andrews, UK, wrote, “The gaming industry and the movie industry will merge and there will be personal interactive movie experiences that enables a viewer or a group of viewer to explore the surroundings of big Hollywood productions and explore the world outside of the existing movie script. Huge amounts of content in the highest quality will be streamed from several angles to heterogeneous display environments.”

An anonymous respondent commented, “Games and gaming will always take advantage of higher transmissions speeds. All types of service apps, communication apps, and social media apps will follow swiftly to take advantage of higher speeds. We could see more creative ways to communicate and share information, making the world we live in smaller with every gig we increase our connection speed.”

A technology, risk, and cybersecurity expert for a US financial services association wrote, “This is where ‘big data’ comes into play. With more data and the ability to analyze it, individuals and organizations will come up with new products that could help anticipate when customers want or need things, better manage risks (e.g., ‘black swan’ events), or protect society from those that might want to do us harm. I don’t know what these specific products will be but I am confident that this will be an area of innovation.”

A behavioral researcher specializing in design in voting and elections commented. “It’s all in the book Diamond Age by Neal Stephenson.”

A senior administrator at the University of Maryland-Baltimore wrote, “Anything that increases interconnectedness and social interaction will be a good thing. Anything that makes life easier or simpler will be a hit. Is it time for teleportation? How about the concepts in Person of Interest?”

The CEO of a consultancy dealing with top-level Internet domains wrote, “Customized applications (bandwidth intensive applications) based on a user profile—i.e. custom television programs, YouTube, video, and HD.”

A self-employed digital communications consultant commented, “There will be an increase in Beacon technology (or things like ‘geofencing’)—where our technology is communicating with the environment (and the things in that environment) without our participation. After we’ve opted in for that to happen it will result in a more customized, personalized interface with the world at large for each of us who have access to mobile devices. Wearable tech will be a component of this as well.”

A law professor at Georgetown University and former US Federal Trade Commission official wrote, “There will be those kinds of distinctive and compelling new apps that will take advantage of bandwidth expansion, but what makes that prospect exciting is that it is impossible to forecast what those developments might be.”

A postdoctoral fellow and researcher in Informatics wrote, “Smart video application perhaps? Ads with emotion recognition? But how much of that will actually need high bandwidth is not clear to me. Gaming and immersive reality applications could be likely candidates for high-bandwidth killer apps.”

A political scientist who studies cyberculture, social movements, political violence, and African politics commented, “There will be more bells and whistles, that’s all, and more integration of multiple platforms.”

An online community management consultant responded, “We are still waiting for a good technology for watching movies or TV at home with remote friends. Cable TV and Twitter is not much different than broadcast TV and a dial-up account to log in to the movies conference on The Well in 1990. And that’s such a retro desire.”

The director of innovation at Images & Co responded, “I am conflicted by this question. I am a VP of a multi-country company that is aiming for this gigabit market. The initial niches (for test-marketing future tools for decision support—think SimCity but as it might be in 2030) are for the elite in enterprises and will enable them to optimize their decisions in very short time frames, and drastically reduce the time and resources needed to achieve their goals.”

The chief privacy officer for a US technology company wrote, “The era of needing to know this is over. Individuals will have constant access to big data analytic tools. Simultaneous translation will make learning languages a novelty.”

A business school professor replied, “We’ve only scratched the surface of ubiquitous real-time video, for both social and business interaction. And people don’t realize how much bandwidth will be required in a world of dozens of sensors per person. Even if each device is relatively limited in capacity requirements, the numbers and the I/O involved scale up pretty quickly.”

The head of product management at 1&1 Internet commented, “There will be plenty of new killer apps but more in the professional world than for private people. Services on demand (like TV) will increase and be the general way. Nevertheless none of these developments will have dramatic changes to our behavior. I could imagine the true revolutions are in combination with robotics like remote surgeries and autonomous driving assistants.”

A university professor wrote, “As bandwidth increases so will the number of pixels that we all send across the bandwidth. Communication via holograms might be a possibility. There will be much more 3D printing and 3D imaging. Vast amounts of data converted into visual landscapes so that ordinary people can make sense of it. Copies of personal genetic code.”

The principal research scientist at a university-affiliated research center commented, “Trying to pre-determine a killer app is a useless exercise. People spent almost twenty years looking for a ‘killer app’ to justify IPv6.”

A president and CEO of an Internet issues-centered coalition wrote, “It is hard to predict exactly what, but researchers will push the margins on bandwidth.”

A senior policy adviser for a major US Internet service provider commented, “Change will be incremental as evidenced by the first twenty years of the commercial Internet. Holographic gaming and entertainment will expand to some degree, but fits and starts for 3D TV and immersive gaming experiences to date suggest that storytelling will be more central than bandwidth, and good storytelling will always be more scarce. Small-scale and in-home 3D printing will become more commonplace. Apps will be developed with greater bandwidth efficiency (and devices with greater energy efficiency), meaning more economical use of bandwidth, meaning demand for a gigabyte will come no more quickly than demand for solar panels on every home.”

A doctoral student in information science at the Universidade Estadual Paulista, commented, “Yes, but it will be a situation only in the United States and other advanced territories because, still, the market ideology will produce things for those who can pay, not for those who need it.”

A network scientist for BBN Technologies commented, “The fundamental outlines of the applications we have are bounded by the human senses, especially hearing and sight, and our ability to provide them with data. Additional bandwidth simply allows us to deliver more, high-quality data to these senses. I expect pervasiveness of connectivity (e.g., for the Internet of Things) to be more influential than bandwidth.

An anonymous dean and professor at the University of Illinois wrote, “I suspect the greatest developments might be in science and engineering, and in the next 10 years the public may not ‘see’ the immediate killer apps nor recognize their significance—as 10 or so years ago the public did not recognize the implications of the human genome project.”

A doctoral student at Endicott College wrote, “A more exhaustive collection, with more categories of apps, will collect and transmit data about us under the guise that they are collecting and transmitting data for us. Anything related to commerce (shopping or banking, for example) will grow exponentially; anything related to GPS will grow exponentially.”

The director of creative services for a nonprofit in Washington, D.C., wrote, “I would anticipate more specialized apps to meet particular needs, not your familiar ‘one app for everyone’ approach… Such as apps for people with depression or autism. I predict that people with disabilities are likely to see particular benefits. Not sure that bandwidth is going to be the driving force here.”

An anonymous respondent commented, “Telepresence will become possible, remote medicine requires high bandwidth with low jitter. Working with many remote databases, data replication needs more bandwidth than is generally available today Good virtual-reality gaming requires more bandwidth maybe not gigabit to the house, but terabits in the backbones.”

A technologist working in Internet policy, real-time HD entertainment, and social networking said, “You will be able to ‘hang out’ with people and not necessarily notice that they are not physically present. It is being built into Web browsers right now (WebRTC) and will really hit its stride on the mobile platform.”

An information scientist for a nonprofit research organization wrote, “I think the apps may be driven by ‘big data.’ There will be a need to move this data from the point of collection to the point of analysis, and to explore and visualize the results. The former has the potential to use a lot of bandwidth.”

A professor at Aoyama Gakuin University wrote, “We will still be far away from full virtual reality, but person-to-person communication over the Internet may be way more close to in-person communication than now. Also, ‘virtual tourism’ may start to become feasible. In both cases, smell will still need quite a bit more work.”

A former member of IEEE and ACM wrote, “There will always be a new killer app. I have no idea which one it will be, and I am also quite certain that any new killer app will be replaced within five years by a new one.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “Weaving technology’s support capabilities (health, safety, convenience) with visible and background processes (e.g., Internet of things) will help redefine things like routine doctor visits, real-time communications (audio and video), how we use informational devices (calling your refrigerator from the store to see if you need milk), etc.”

An anonymous respondent commented, “What we have seen so far are early apps, that I would describe as the first generation of Internet and Web Applications. As of today, the global average bandwidth available as an average between mobile devices and computers with larger screens would be well under one megabyte. By 2025, we would truly be in the gigabit age, there would be more intelligent, more useful apps requiring and causing significant increases to bandwidth around the world. I do not agree with the question completely because while it is true that significant increases in bandwidth cause newer applications to be developed, it is also true that significant increases in bandwidth results from the development of newer applications.”

An anonymous respondent commented, “I answered no mostly because of the phrasing ‘new and distinctive’ as I do think there will be change as the Internet gains more bandwidth, but we’ll first see it as enhancements to the websites and apps we already have. It will open new doors for streaming video, online gaming and possibly even P2P networks.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “I question the assumption that gigabit connectivity will become available. But if it does—all kinds of immersive telepresence and visualization will prosper.”

A self-employed programmer and web-developer commented, “The United States is becoming more and more distrusted; as this distrust increases, new killer apps will simply be stifled at the start. This may not be the case for the rest of the world, or parts of the rest of the world.”

An associate professor of sociology at California State University-Northridge responded, “There will also be mountains of ill-conceived fodder for standup one-liners.”

A principal engineer with Ericsson, IETF leader, and advisor to the Internet Society wrote, “If history is any guide, we will face a new technology revolution that will take the current one for granted, rather than seeing continued ‘killer apps’ that will extend the existing one. As cars were revolutionary, and then became the basis for other things, and the telephone was revolutionary, but the telephone network became much of the basis for the first “overlay” computer networks, IP will become ‘dial tone,’ and the network will become part of the underlay for the next big thing. Bandwidth won’t be an issue when whatever it is comes along, other than either speeding or delaying the onset of this next wave.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “There will be massive platforms that host and converge all different media formats under one roof in the cloud (music, movies, books etc.) by today’s major Internet players (e.g. Google, Facebook, Amazon, Apple) completely eliminating the barrier between TV and the Internet.”

A university professor wrote, “If I knew what they were, I’d probably shift professions. The guiding rule here is that apps and technologies which foster human communication and sociality in new, useful, and gratifying ways take off: books, radio, TV, email, Facebook, mobile phones, the Internet etc.”

An associate professor at Northeastern University responded, there are always new apps, but companies now are trying to figure out how they can innovate and have a new edge, and I believe that this will lead to increased innovation.”

A senior staff member for one of the leading Internet standards organizations commented, “Remote communication in complete immersion, active participation and modification of movie, fiction, etc., to have people you know as actors. Google earth on steroid with time travel based on past images and scientific rebuilt rendering.”

A research fellow at the Global Cities Research Institute at RMIT University, commented, “Most software applications continue to be developed with the view that they are executed in a context of local resources. Massively increased network availability could change this view substantially—where access, for example, complex information networks of Linked Data would be treated as analogous to reading data from a local text file.”

A highly decorated retired IBM computer scientist, former president of the ACM, and current board chair for Verified Voting responded, “Given the pace of technological development, it seems inevitable. Whether or not the new applications will improve people’s quality of life is an open question.”

A professional designer of technological systems responded, “Company at a distance. Because we will be separated from our loved ones to an even higher degree we will crave human connection with them. Internet mediated touch will require quite a chunk of bandwidth but will be possible. We will be represented by a robotic agent in the home of the recipient which morphs to be us while we ‘visit’ them.”

A professor specializing in information studies at the University of Toronto commented, “There always is the new-new and the hype. But one year’s killer app may be moribund in the next few years after that. Wearable technologies will become more of the norm.”

An associate professor of history at Concordia University responded, “Apps for automated driving to avoid traffic, for easier TV/movie/music streaming. Perhaps more personal interactive teaching online will become available.”

The CEO for a strategy, consulting, and social marketing company responded, “Yes apps will come—especially for augmented reality.”

An Internet activist and advocate for people online wrote, “I can’t imagine using so much more bandwidth, but I didn’t imagine today’s hunger either.”

An anti-spam and security architect wrote, “Just the growth of user-generated content and streaming media, which contributes the bulk of today’s bandwidth usage, might continue to drive things. The US has far to go, even a decade or more, to provide the sort of broadband that Japan considers fast.”

A research scientist working at a major search engine company responded, “I have no idea. But these things always happen after the introduction of qualitatively new capacities. (Think urban architecture after the introduction of state highway capacity, or goods and services after introduction of North American train networks, etc). It’s difficult to imagine, but completely predictable.”

A professor of strategic communications based in Europe responded, “During the next five years, there will be an increase in new tools and applications, but then new tools and applications will approach that combine different tools and applications.”

A digital learning and media specialist and educator responded, “New apps will capitalize on the huge amount of data now available. Natural language processing will also get better and better. Being able to talk to our devices and get them to execute complex tasks will be the norm. Recommendations and curated content will get better and better.”

A Syracuse University professor and dean wrote, “Mostly, this will be in the expectation that the promise of high bandwidth access will become a reality. I imagine that several applications will allow us to get ‘beyond being there’ in that they will augment, not replicate, the experience of being together while at a distance. I’m thinking of real-time assistants that monitor and report on what others are saying at meetings (fact checking, following up); helping keep track of tasks and to-dos (which differ between work and non-work, but exist in both worlds), and doing more to keep friends and families translucent to one-another.”

A doctoral candidate wrote, “Mobile networks and infrastructures will need to be immensely improved to compete with both the Internet usage and access for more US citizens.”

A technology policy expert wrote, “Always-on internet, available like a blanket everywhere in the United States, will make it possible for more apps to become more reliably available all the time. This means mobile phones will become wallets, and mobile devices will provide easy access to photos, music, personal data, etc. Seems like the ‘killer apps’ category might be in hospitals and medicine. I assume there is lots going on there (I don’t work in it) but it seems like an industry that still generates tons of paperwork, and that really needs a more integrated, streamlined approach to data management and sharing in order to reduce errors, double-billing, and needless tests.”

A distinguished chair of computer science and ACM and IEEE fellow wrote, “There are many optimization problems that are encountered everyday. No polynomial-time solutions are known to many of these problems. However, with the expansion of cloud computing, large versions of these problems can be solved at remote data centers if data centers can offer the computing power at moderate prices, which seems feasible, and if the bandwidth is available to transmit the results quickly, which is assumed.”

The research director at a technology trade association wrote, “Increased bandwidth will make possible remote health care provision, empower and inform medical service providers and their clientele, and improve health outcomes. At the same time, it can enable the outsourcing and offshoring of intellectual and creative work (e.g., along the lines of the offshoring of production related to Cameron’s Avatar). The increased bandwidth may actually foster sloppy programming, as programmers ‘assume the network’ and don’t consider the benefits of economical and efficient programs. ‘Immersive’ experiences may enhance societal separation at the same time they generate the illusion of connectedness, much as in Fahrenheit 451.”

A senior consultant for user experience for Forum One Communications said, “I honestly have no idea. The Internet of Things is a likely source, though it also feels pretty hyped right now. Maybe real, honest-to-goodness remote, real-time collaboration will really work.”

An anonymous survey participant responded, “The apps will be there, but the United States may lag in this category since we have allowed our technology infrastructure to fall behind other developed countries. Our Internet speed is slow and costly compared to other developed countries.”

The senior policy advisor for a major Internet operations organization responded, “I’ve no idea what these will be, but I find it hard to believe that substantially increased bandwidth will not enable brand new applications. Exponential growth means that very soon the amount of bandwidth available will exceed conventional video applications ability to use it. Couple with ability to cope with processing masses of additional data quickly suggests context (time, space, proximity of others, history of interaction) will inform our decisions. Incidentally, the very information that interests big-data surveillance mining!”

A professor of technoculture at the University of California-Davis predicted, “Sure, but not for everyone. Wearable computing and enhanced reality products will become commonplace.”

A professor of law at a US East Coast university wrote, “Predictions about likely future usage of increased information bandwidth have, historically, been mostly wrong. I’m not sure I want to put my name on a guess. But I think technologically mediated co-presence is right around the corner. At present, we have what we call telecommuting and virtual meetings, but in the near future it is going to be much easier to share environments and tap into the environments of others. A certain set of people will be able to move around the world and do important work without moving at all.”

The executive director of a nonprofit that protects civil liberties online wrote, “I’m excited to see what creative things become commonplace in the future because of ubiquitous bandwidth. I expect communications will be greatly affected by these new applications, as will transportation.”

The director of a web-based journalism project at a major US university responded, “If I knew what killer apps would seize the public imagination then I would be a very rich man. But I do think that we will see significant new tools and apps for commerce and gaming.”

An Internet researcher and entrepreneur said, “We’ve only scratched the surface of telepresence. And that can use as much bandwidth as you throw at it.”

A professor at a Big 10 research university in the United States commented, “I can’t think of what these will be, but I feel confident they are coming and will be around increasing personal connectivity, visual communication (e.g. photos and photo sharing), voice recognition, the final demise of the QWERTY keyboard, real time video, holographic, and full body video conferencing.

An executive for a US Internet service provider predicted, “3D porn will lead the way.”

An administrator for technology-focused units in educational nonprofits responded, “More immersive and interactive games, travel assistance, purchasing assistance, educational assistance, media (news and entertainment) access, general and specialized information access (with visualization and simulation capabilities of various scenarios), personal social assistance, and security assists/assurances. Tools that are easy to use, not (too) expensive, and offer vibrant, fun, or highly useful experiences will seize the days ahead.”

A CEO wrote, “The killer app will be ubiquity.”

The CEO of a nonprofit technology/education/innovation company responded, “The United States has shown little movement to increase bandwidth even to the possible standards of 10 years ago. As long as government can achieve its goals of efficiency and social control with the existing patchy infrastructure we have, and as long as corporations can achieve their profits, there is no sector whose interests are served by promoting or bearing the expense of infrastructure enhancement and so it will not be enhanced.”

A PhD candidate in information sciences and technology observed, “We will begin to see plastic and paper payment methods disappear in favor of digital methods that are more easily tracked and monitored. Additionally, as all communications go online, as long as cellular service plan rates costs do not skyrocket, more communication will become visual—Facetime is just the beginning. Also, paper use will decrease, through an integration of receipt management and payment methods that keeps a central place for all purchasing behavior.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “Yes, there will be new apps, especially with regard to mobility and ubiquity. If I were going to describe one of these killer apps, I’d first go make a billion dollars on it, and then I’d get back to you.”

An entrepreneur and electrical engineer active in ACM and IEEE wrote, “I hesitate to venture specific guesses, but every previous gain in communications capacity has fostered a wealth of new applications. It would be foolish to expect gigabit data rates to be any different.”

An executive at a top-level domain name operator commented, “Who can say? Implied in the definition of ‘killer app’ is that it is some paradigm changing break-through. If people know what those are going to be over the next ten years, I’d love to buy stock in their developers.”

A technology writer commented, “One that I foresee is telepresence—higher than HDTV cameras in various places of the world that will display on a wall much like a window. How cool would it be to be able to ‘see’ Mt. Fuji out of one ‘window’ and ‘see’ Mt. Rainier out of another ‘window’ and ‘see’ New York City from any number of vantage points from another window. Another is ‘immersion’ teleconference—very high resolution video and audio can give you the ‘feeling’ of being in a person’s immediate presence.”

An assistant professor at New Mexico State University responded, “Big Data and careful analysis will reveal surprising things about human biology, in sickness and in health. Real-time monitoring of personal metabolic metrics will allow people to tailor their food intake and exercise patterns for optimal health and fitness. The old idea of a single ideal diet or exercise regimen for one and all will be seen as a quaint superstition. Immersive artificial reality systems with high-resolution image and sound will be common in households that can afford them. Cheaper, less realistic systems will be ubiquitous. Leading edge, early adopters will be trying out haptic technology that allows users to feel pressure on their skin, including textures. The business of online erotica will be transformed.”

An online producer for KQED, National Public Radio in San Francisco, wrote, “TV in the format we know it today will be all but gone, replaced by on-demand services and a suite of apps. I suspect radio will see the same transition.”

A self-described “social innovation orphan” commented, “Simply following the trajectory of the past, it is easy to imagine that greater bandwidth will allow greater apps. What does Skype look like on high connectivity? Can I feel as if I am touching the person? Then again, what qualifies as distinctive and uniquely compelling? What does Etsy look like when I can 3D print as a purchase? What does that do to the concept of ‘hand-made’ in the future? Mostly, it will probably improve games.”

An educator specializing in digital technology responded, “Apps that combine sensor data, ubiquitous computing, and wearable devices to deliver highly personalized information.”

A networking engineer employed by a large cable television company responded, “Continued blurring of the lines between games (interactive entertainment) and passive content like TV and books. Once the resolution gets to a certain point, the only way to improve it further is to continue making it something that is responsive to the individual experiencing it. Reality shows replaced by games where everyone is a contestant, etc. Increased reliance on the services of the ‘cloud’ to replace local hardware, software, widgets—virtual workspace that is persistent and consistent across devices and locations (i.e. I have the same desktop environment on my full terminal, my mobile device, my office, etc). Increased transition from physical presence to telepresence. Unless I have to be physically manipulating something to accomplish my task, there will be less and less reason for me to be in the same room as someone or something else, especially if it involves significant travel.”

A policy advisor for EDUCAUSE, a nonprofit whose mission is to advance IT in higher education, commented, “I am skeptical about the likelihood of ‘increases in bandwidth’ as I think mobile and wireless devices will continue to saturate limited bandwidth. I do think consumers will be looking for more apps that provide convenience and assist in their personal and professional productivity. I also think that the advent of Personal Health Records, if they take off, could create some great opportunities for killer apps for use by both medical professionals and consumers.”

An anonymous respondent commented, “I don’t believe there will be significant increases in bandwidth in the United States between now and 2025. Economic concentration, commoditization of ISP services, limited demand for super-high bandwidth applications, and limited radio spectrum resources will all constrain bandwidth growth. Video-driven applications will increase market share by 2025, however. The volume of content available on YouTube will grow significantly (as much as ten times over current volume) as well as terabytes of video data being stored on individual hard drives and Web storage solutions (Dropbox, Skydrive, etc.). Particularly among younger users, video chat will become ubiquitous—email and voice will diminish in use.”

A digital editor for a major global news organization responded, “I assume there will be, though you’d expect to see some sign of them in Asia if gigabit links really made a big difference. I assume that we simply haven’t developed the end-point technologies that are needed to take advantage of such fast links. I expect robotic telepresence to be one example of a new application.”

A thought leader and principal at mindShift responded, “We will go from silicon to biology to store information. That will enable more responsiveness between mind, body, and machine. Our environment will be a stream of information like it is not a stream of radio waves. We will have built in receivers to pick up, filter and respond to the data stream.”

A 25-year veteran of technology research and entrepreneurship, professor, and CEO commented, “Stop talking just about bandwidth, latency is just as important. We haven’t quite reached a situation where it is normal to have audio/video streams run 24/7 between places; this is going to change. Just as people are no longer ‘going online’ today, people will stop ‘calling’ other people and just be present with them. Billions of connected sensors and actuators everywhere will further support this. New methods (and social norms) will of course be required to manage attention and obtain privacy in this world. Some of this will be manual, some of it will be Google-scale automation.”

A research fellow at a top UK research university wrote, “Incremental increases in e-lancing or micro work may be advantaged by this but I am not sure that there are business models poised to involve gigabit users in ways besides encouraging greater consumption.”

An engineer in the top-50 contributors in a networking company that employs 75,000 and leading participant in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) observed, “We’re at the top of the S curve, with ‘pretty good’ video available at most residences and mobile devices. I suppose there might be more immersive video, but it will be incremental improvement.”

A private law firm partner specializing in telecommunications and Internet regulatory issues wrote, “Maybe I have a tough definition of ‘new, distinctive, and … compelling.’ With high bandwidth (and low latency) you can do lots more video (e.g., Skype), big-time file transfer, and… what? At some point we all have to live our lives in the real world. Cooler stuff on screens doesn’t really change that.”

A university professor commented, “I marked ‘no’ because I think this will not be true for the vast majority of individuals. I expect such leaps in bandwidth to be available only to wealthy individuals, and thus any new killer apps will be limited to them as well.”

An independent researcher and writer working at a major university commented, “Is the United States going to experience an explosion in bandwidth? Open to all? Not sure this isn’t already a captured resource.”

A freelance media artist and university educator in informatics, art, and social activism commented, “At some point the (hydrocarbon) energy required to maintain ‘the cloud’ will become unavailable and masses of the population will be left literally sense-less as they are unable to orient themselves under the clouds in the sky.”

An anonymous respondent commented, “To be honest, we have grown worse at managing our information anyway (not just our personal information, but information more generally). Having greater bandwidth will allow for some scaled processing, but I don’t think it is going to radically transform anything—we will still consume information. We will still share information with select populations/groups/individuals. Most of us will likely be getting on with our lives and using data and links to do so, just as we always have been.”

An anonymous survey participant responded, “There will be incremental changes. Facebook, Google Plus, and other social services will begin to have a greater impact on government. Slowly, thanks to these apps, we are taking power away from elected officials and placing it in the hands of the general population. One good YouTube video can go viral and influence legislation and governance.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “Most of the applications we use today were written 20 years ago, and have only improved incrementally since then.”

An information science professional commented, “We will still be struggling with an infrastructure issue. I don’t think this will be completely resolved by 2025.”

A self-employed information consultant and developer wrote, “I don’t foresee significant increase in bandwidth becoming a widespread reality in the US any time soon. If there are large increases in bandwidth, they will be limited to a small number of cities, and the availability of large bandwidth applications will be at the pleasure of corporations, without neutrality. Governments will not invest in large bandwidth unless there is a significant social movement that forces them to (and a concomitant increase in the tax burden for wealthier citizens—which seems highly unlikely given that the wealthy are unwilling to be taxed even for basic common goods like education). For those with access to always-on, very high bandwidth connections, applications that utilize full-screen interactive video without jitter and audio delays would catch on very quickly, especially for virtual meetings, education, and medical care.”

An information science professional responded, “Maybe, but we’ll need to improve the infrastructure before that can happen. I see a conflict in having the improvements rely on the same industries that are losing business to the Internet. For example, why should the cable company make it easier for you to get more TV from someone else over their Internet? I also see an issue with a relatively large segment of the population that is rural and still on dial-up. If this ‘old’ technology is all you’ve got now, I can’t imagine how that is going to improve by 2025. If no providers have been motivated to get broadband to some rural areas by now, what will motivate them in the future? The infrastructure isn’t there and neither is the motivation.”

A database configuration specialist and risk assessment analyst wrote, “I’m not convinced gigabit bandwidth will be widely available in the US. It may be isolated regions, or so pricey as to be limited-access. We may well split into two societies—those with access to gigabit entertainment, and those without.”

An international project manager at Microsoft wrote, “Immersive 3D entertainment will require enormous bandwidth; it will have become extremely popular not only in the United States but worldwide.”

A professor at the University of Pittsburgh responded, “Increasing bandwidth will support real-time interaction with complex database systems, access to high-resolution video, and visualization systems, etc., all of which may change how business meetings are conducted, how courses are taught, and so on.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “The impacts are significant. There already are changes in the way to receive our music, information, etc. Technology costs money. Regarding information: There will be more reliance on public libraries since individuals cannot afford their own electronic devices. Education will have different delivery techniques. There could be a faster and shorter time span to develop new drugs and other ways to improve research. Ethics questions will be significant. Protecting personal, business, and government information will be even more challenging and important.”

A science center administrator wrote, “Integrated 3D technology. Being able to have immersive game experiences where you don’t have any difference between real and imagined.”

A university professor wrote, “There won’t be new applications that leverage more bandwidth, we will just change our usage pattern when downloading a super-HD movie can be done in real-time. I don’t think there’s ever been a new app that was enabled by more bandwidth.”

A top leader with the World Wide Web Consortium, the standards-setting body for the Web, wrote, “We can’t possibly know; just as we did not know 12 years ago that social networking would be a killer application.”

The president of a German Internet trade association and founder of various ISPs wrote, “I don’t know about the United States, but I don’t expect significant increase for Europe and/or Asia!”

A general manager for Microsoft wrote, “I don’t think so. More bandwidth will mean more things simultaneously, and faster overall, but we are reaching the saturation point for our human senses to accommodate ‘experiences.’ We can make the video higher quality, but video will remain a time-based medium for consumption. (i.e., we won’t be able to consume a 2-hour movie in 2 minutes, even though we may be able to transmit it that quickly). Increased bandwidth will allow us to improve the quality of experiences that combine multiple elements—including virtual gaming (Star Trek Holodeck?) and immersive 3D conferencing, etc. While these will be significantly different in some ways from what we have today they will be evolutionary not revolutionary.”

A knowledge management professional at a large law firm in the United States wrote, “There is great economic opportunity with big data, so I expect rapid development in apps and leveraging advances in computing power.”

A professor at Florida State University wrote, “Individualized tracking of daily life and analysis of individualized data sets will provide more information for consumer communication strategies and also for health behavior tracking. Immersive communication (sight, sounds, smell, feeling) will make for more intense communication services. Killer apps are likely to be found in two-way communication, entertainment (sports), sex services, gambling, gaming, and education. More effective facilitation of professional group work offers significant economic benefits.”

A marketing and trend consultant wrote, “Lowering costs of all-in-one data chips and GPS connectivity with data bases will bring immense change.”

A marketing and business consultant replied, “We are currently in an omnichannel mode, with consumers receiving information via email, print, and mobile app. This is based on the ‘needs’ versus the ‘access’ of where and when the consumer is, at the moment. The transition from email-based communication is fast approaching as well as smartphone Internet access for information and shopping. As we make the successful transition from standard computer-based Net access to mobile, the bandwidth will be required to match the transition.”

A lawyer working on technology issues replied, “Technology is moving so fast, it can be assumed that there will be something bigger and better in the future. I imagine schools at all levels will become more global and interactive across the world. There will be a much more advanced social media tool available consolidating our consumer wants and our connections to people.”

An instructional system designer based in Texas commented, “Information will not only be more readily but the creation, sharing, and collaboration will be greatly augmented.”

A professor at the University of Massachusetts-Boston predicted, “Telehealth and self monitoring will continue to grow, similarly, all sort of apps to track use of energy.”

An information science professional wrote, “There are so many prospects for new apps, some of which we would not have the capacity to even consider right now. Apps connecting people to one another will continue to rise as we become more isolated from one another. It seems that if there is a perceived need and you can dream it, it can be realized.”

A leader at a US state environmental agency wrote, “There are many people with technology ideas that are constrained only by the speed and volume of data that can be moved around at any time. As bandwidth increases, creative folks are sure to take advantage of it.”

An education technology researcher working in a science center wrote, “The biggest area that will develop is in scientific data and earth visualizations. With faster computers and more sophisticated algorithms, tools like Google Earth Engine and Google Street View will allow any human being to visually probe the planet’s surfaces, open datasets, underwater worlds, hidden museums, and laboratories.”

A university-based teacher and data scientist responded, “That’s a trend with deep roots. Note how we are using apps to organize aspects of our lives, (e.g., health care for chronic diseases, exercise).”

An online news producer responded, “I dream of an app capable of connecting the brain of the blind via biochip to cameras and servers or others human brains in order to give them back their eyesight.”

An educational technologist at a regional university in the United States wrote, “There will be many more graphical and interactive video apps requiring bandwidth. Most computer apps will be run by brainwaves rather than voice recognition or user interfaces.”

A district software administrator wrote, “Change will be incremental because telecom companies will eventually be successful at funding legislation that destroys net neutrality. ‘Killer apps’ would only be those that can make the most money per transaction on an average broadband connection.”

A healthcare entrepreneur wrote, “Processing of data and real-time consultations will be the norm. There are many instances that consumers still use judgment to make decisions. With widespread connectivity and processing power, consultation will be the norm, particularly in involved decision making.”

An information science professional at Iona College wrote, “If current trends continue, there will continue to be an increase in the media and interactive elements included in all applications. It is the enriched media used to make common tasks easier and more compelling that will use up the additional bandwidth.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “There will be more personalization of content. And more junk.”

The managing director of the consulting division at a major US-based digital, creative, and marketing company wrote, “As carriers and companies continue to upgrade their wireless networks, we are going to see a more robust media experience in the mobile space. We will see a lot of innovation in the personal health mobile applications. Tools like augmented reality will continue to make great strides.”

A higher education technology support professional wrote, “I expect the next ‘killer apps’ to have more of a combined visual/video/audio component to them in the next ten years. E-mail was so text based, the Web very visual. The next leap will be a more-immersive kind of experience, with video and audio being key and perhaps even something tactile.”

A US government research professional wrote, “Almost certainly the boom in location-based apps, mobile services, and new hardware as there has been over the past five years. Wearable and implanted hardware seem likely. I also think sophisticated ‘push’ applications that allow very customized and personalized selection of Internet content are likely.”

A researcher based at Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government wrote, “The idea of ubiquitous large-screen teleconferencing, and possibly holograms, will mean homes and offices are filled with virtual worlds of people interacting with remote friends, family, and colleagues. It’s really just a question of bandwidth and speed at the mass consumer level, and many large corporations already employ this.”

A research director for a US-based organization advocating for economic justice and opportunity wrote, “How could it not be so. I’m curious about the Internet of everything. Will we be able to make machines that communicate with each other?”

A communications professional with the Massachusetts Department of Public Health wrote, “If total encryption and privacy can be guaranteed; the medical applications for those living with chronic conditions could significantly reduce emergency room visits and lower medical costs.”

A self-employed business-technology consultant wrote, “Yes, because history shows we have an incredible appetite for bandwidth, computing power, and the personal and business advances those springboard. What those killer apps might be? Probably best imagined by a current middle or high school student.”

An editor focused on how technology affects policy and society for a major US-based online news organization wrote, “If I knew what this would look like, I would be in Silicon Valley trying to create it. I’m not sure what we will see, beyond increased capabilities for remote learning and working. But I am sure innovators will come up with something.”

A researcher at Tallinn University in Estonia wrote, “I support the approach that change is always incremental. There is a chance that by 2025 we’ll start to see the new forms of social and interactive (high resolution) ‘television’ that will presume also significant increases in bandwidth.”

A senior researcher at a leading British university observed, “If I knew, I would go build them and become a billionaire.”

A computer programmer for the Canadian government wrote, “There will be a series of new sites and we may go through three to five new world popular Internet sites and perhaps Google, Facebook and Twitter will no longer be with us.”

A lawyer from North America wrote, “The increase in bandwidth will be needed, but not due to the emergence of individual, high-bandwidth applications. Video will continue to drive bandwidth growth, but it will be the vastly increased number of devices connected to the networks running machine-to-machine applications, rather than one or two new apps, that will drive the bandwidth needs.”

An anonymous survey participant wrote, “The United States is so behind broadband demand compared to many other industrialized nations, that more demanding broadband apps will just slow broadband down for the majority.”

A board member for several nonprofit organizations wrote, “We have had video conferencing prototypes since the 1960s, and some argue that until we get to ubiquitous (including mobile) gigabit speeds we won’t see video conferencing that truly replaces face to face meetings. I think some applications, like video conferencing, will see dramatic improvements; but too much of the world still operates at very slow speeds, so even existing applications enjoyed by the few who have high-speed connectivity at work and home will continue to be a revelation as higher speeds are accessible to more.”

An employee of the US government based in Washington, DC, responded, “My personal sense is that apps will be looked back on as a fad. Something new will come along and the age of apps will end.”

An anonymous survey participant wrote, “The gains will be more incremental, and intensifying, than revolutionary—extending the trends we already see. After all, broadband has been growing for about two decades.”

A new-media researcher and teacher at a university wrote, “So-called killer apps are coming, but until the federal government makes the investment to significantly increase bandwidth in the United States, corporations will not be willing to spend enough of their own capital to increase bandwidth to support widespread use of such apps. Like with the expansion of the railroads and the creation of the Interstate Highway System, there needs to be public policy and investment to create truly massive bandwidth accessible to all within the United States.”

A professional who works for a US university public health program wrote, “There will be a master app that controls your whole house and everything in it—from computers and TVs to home security and power management. Also someone needs to develop an app that will help sort and store all the digital media individual consumers are producing. Will it be unlimited forever?”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “Organizations will be sure to capitalize on bandwidth increases. It’s impossible to say what the killer app in 2025 will be.”

A PhD candidate in educational technology wrote, “Absolutely. I know work is already being done on such technology (increasing bandwidth) and two obvious results are a growing number of ‘big data’ for each individual (including rich media within the dataset such as photo and video), and higher-definition transmission of data (even higher-quality streaming video/video conferencing/etc.).”

A self-employed digital media researcher and consultant responded, “It may not be distinctly new, but we will see more communications and continued-presence applications.”

An online marketing professional for a medical publisher wrote, “I’m not sure that ‘significant increases in bandwidth’ will be the driver. ‘Personal connectivity’ feels like a misnomer to me—it seems that the more digitally connected we are, more personally disconnected we are. Immersive media experiences—virtual reality video games, I suppose. You’ll never have to leave your house. I am slightly intrigued by big data, the mining of big data, and visualization. Opportunities for new insights to arise from mining data (health, public health, media, social media/the zeitgeist), especially across disciplines—these could be really exciting.”

The senior director for digital media at a healthcare nonprofit wrote, “The ‘Internet of Things’ will revolutionize our lives through the additional available bandwidth and IP address space. Our every action will be recorded in some way creating the potential for instant feedback. All this requires bandwidth. Video and pictures will become even more ever-present and will be created at a pace we can only imagine now. Tools of all kinds will capture video and imagery so a moment is almost never missed.”

A strategy and business intelligence manager in a major city in the United States, wrote, “The American appetite for bandwidth is limitless—at least until it hits the point where something doesn’t work well. I can imagine a killer app that would combine an individual’s health history that includes text as well as relevant images such as X-rays, MRI screens, and ultrasound images. Another app might include a person’s genealogy that would include visual images such as family photos, oral histories, and images of original documents (military records, church records, etc.). Gaming apps will continue to grow and include more realistic images, especially for role-playing and alternate world games. Another app might include an individual’s work history that includes text documents as well as photos and models of past accomplishments.”

A retiree wrote, “Imagine a world where every one has a pair of Google Glass, that stores months of data and can do all kinds of optical feats.”

A certified nonprofit fundraising executive responded, “New technologies will continue to be developed, and existing ones will continue to be fine-tuned and improved. More extensive (and stronger) wireless/Internet coverage needs to be a top priority in order to reach underserved areas and populations, and to make new technologies easier to use.”

A professor at a large public university wrote, “I can’t imagine what these tools will be, or what they will look like. Just remember the Internet was released to the public in 1991, just 22 years ago. The pace of change is accelerating, so tech will affect our lives in ways we cannot even imagine today.”

A middle manager in the digital division of a public media company, wrote, “Social media will be ubiquitous and continuous as we live our lives to share our lives. Finding/sorting/experiencing the lives of other folks of interest will be a habit/way of life. Everyone is Truman as depicted in the film The Truman Show. (That might be another generation out, though, not so soon as 2025.)”

A digital strategist wrote, “Health and lifestyle tailoring will significantly improve with accessible data (anything that is bar coded, i.e., food) readily incorporated into lifestyle and health apps. These will increase personal relevance and in turn significantly remove to adoption. Likewise, day-to-day tools that are already parts of our lives, will marry this accessible data with behavioral and health best practice. That donut that you are about to eat, will now tell you exactly the impact it is going to have on your pancreas, thighs, and mood. Pharmaceuticals will evolve where personalized models are the norm. Data from decades of trials and use will be crunched mapping to individual characteristics and predicting optimal use (combinations, dose, timing, etc.).”

A manager for a major US foundation wrote, “Technologies that currently exist, such as Google Glass, will be more widely available.”

A university-based researcher commented, “I don’t see why there would be any change, mostly because I can’t imagine what would come next, a 3D version of Angry Birds? But then, isn’t that the point of technological innovation? It takes a few insightful and creative geniuses to solve a problem that the rest of us didn’t even notice was there.”

A Web technical analyst for a major US county, responded, “Capitalism in the United States will remain a hindrance to significant increases in bandwidth for most of the country. The gap between the haves and have-nots continues to get wider.”

The director of financial stability and workforce development for a medium-sized nonprofit, responded, “I’m sure there will be killer apps, I simply don’t have the imagination to envision them.”

A professional counselor wrote, “How could there not be? Once they are fed and housed securely, humans seem to spend the majority of their brain energy on devising the next best thing.”

The digital manager for a hospital and member of the computing professionals’ honor society wrote, “Every day, a new useful app is invented. As we begin to find new ways to use technology, I’m sure there will be new apps to help out daily life.”

An Internet marketer wrote, “TV and Internet will merge. The complicated systems of business set up to manage copyrights and revenue are holding this up from happening now. If those stakeholders ever work things out, entertainment and information will be more ubiquitous and less specifically tied to each device. Also the amount of data that we create and store personally and professionally is exploding. Bandwidth is making it possible to collect and transmit more and more data.”

An employee at a US-based, state, public university wrote, “If compression issues can be addressed, the existing infrastructure will allow innovation. In television, for example, if the cable industry cannot retain a monopoly on distribution rights of properties like ESPN, then we will see streamed television boom beyond its current levels.”

A communications professional working for a US government agency responded, “It’s inevitable given the innovation that is taking place today and the number of brilliant people working on these things.”

An education consultant, teacher, and developer replied, “I believe the idea of a ‘phone’ will morph into something completely different. Screens will mean something different and access will be almost universal. They will be part of something else, something ubiquitous so people are connected 24/7. Not enough of a techie to be able to describe the what or how!”

The president of a Washington, DC-based center advocating health solutions, responded, “I don’t know enough about this to imagine it. Who, after all, could have imagined that Twitter, of all things, would be a success? Or for that matter, Facebook? But just looking at the numbers of people who use Facebook and the growing number of gamers, serious and otherwise, and it is clear our attraction to electronics that deliver personal connectivity and immersive media experiences is primal and normal.”

A consultant to state higher education organizations focused on adult college completion wrote, “Capacity will need to be readily available to all.”

A digital analyst for a publishing company responded, “There will be photo-realistic graphics and interactive advertising through TV/radio.”

An anonymous survey participant responded, “There is no end to human creativity or our capacity to burn bandwidth.”

A chief evangelist for Brazil for a global IT company that is based in the United States wrote, “The killer application of the future is hard to predict, otherwise we would have already implemented it.”

A retired lawyer and political activist commented, “Many of the routine chores—like housekeeping—will be managed with apps that control tools.”

An independent consultant specializing in research issues relating to aging wrote, “As I watch Person of Interest and listen to NSA ’revelations,’ I wonder whether we are closer to ‘the machine” than we realize. I don’t know the degree to which this can be considered an ‘app,’ or whether it will excite people, beyond the fear of an Orwellian future. The tradeoff for new and more powerful apps is increasingly a voluntary surrender of personal data and a reduction of personal/private space.”

An anonymous survey participant responded, “It is happening currently without gigabit connectivity. More games will continue to steal away the time and social experiences we need for our individual improvement.”

A professional who works for a nonprofit social services provider commented, “More virtual reality and social networking that will allow people to virtually attend events and virtually shop at brick and mortar stores.”

A self-employed author and blogger wrote, “Just as we could hardly have imagined the apps we now have today twelve years ago, I think it’s hard to envision how technology will enhance our lives by 2025. I am afraid that people will continue to turn to software apps and interaction via Internet channels rather than person-to-person interactions. I hope we don’t lose our sense of common humanity.”

A freelance marketing and communications professional commented, “Apps keep getting more interesting and useful. It will be fun to watch what happens to them as cell phone companies lower their prices on data, as they already have on minutes. Hopefully Wi-Fi will be more readily available when away from home. And again, this will inhibit a safer data infrastructure.”

An assistant professor at the University of Albany -State University of New York commented, “A gut feeling primarily motivated my answer. If bandwidth increases, so too will the capability of technology applications.”

A survey research professional at a university based in Ohio commented, “Just part of keeping up with future trending!”

A social scientist at a North American university commented, “This has been the pattern since the 1980s.”

An associate professor of IT management at California Lutheran University wrote, “If I could elaborate well, I’d be investing. Added capability to move more work to ‘the cloud,’ including gaming, will enable more folks to engage in more active gaming without requiring everyone to own a console.”

A PhD candidate studying newsworthiness in online and traditional media wrote, “My optimism may be getting the better of me, but I suspect greatly expanded bandwidth will happen. Gigabit connectivity would be a tremendous improvement on existing apps, let alone allowing for new ones. In theory, my cell phone has the capability to play streaming video. In reality, I don’t get enough bandwidth on my data plan to play even a simple video clip for more than four seconds at a time, on a phone I bought six months ago. The ability to reliably watch streaming video in the palm of my hand, in real time, would turn existing technology into a ‘killer app’ instead of frustration. If creating, uploading, and streaming video (longer than fifteen second clips) is as easy as sharing pictures, I suspect this will be extremely popular.”

An associate professor at the University of Illinois—Urbana-Champaign responded, “Learning analytics will accept people and provide for more of a personal learning experience, diagnostics, and assessments.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “The Internet changed so much in the past 10 years. There is no reason to believe that it won’t change just as significantly in the next ten. Impossible to say what will ‘excite people,’ but I believe that semantic, location-aware technology will rise (and possibly fall) in the next half-decade. I’m imagining tools that allow us to re-engage with the physical world, too.”

A customer-experience strategist for the Kaiser Foundation wrote, “Pattern analysis of huge amounts of data collected from a dispersed network will not only predict, but model, and influence the environment and behaviors. Crimes may be prevented before they happen, disease outbreaks nipped in the bud. Anyone will be anywhere and everywhere at all times.”

A PhD candidate at the University of Oslo commented, “We will see 3D games, teletransportation-like communication environment, and cyborg-like hybrids and implants.”

An assistant professor at Hanyang University predicted “There will be an explosion of 3D printers and the torrenting of their designs.”

An assistant professor at the London School of Economics responded, “Again, simply working on the basis of historical precedent, the chances of distinctive uses for new capabilities not being developed seems very remote.”

An anonymous survey participant wrote, “At some point, the social will have to catch up with the technological. This will be a period of transition that will probably go beyond 2025. In the meantime we may still be playing games (bigger ones), using more complex algorithms to answer the same questions we now ask, and creating drones to deliver packages for Amazon.”

An anonymous respondent based in Russia commented, “My guess is that there will be new, unique opportunities, but I have no crystal ball.”

A self-employed interactive communications specialist commented, “Certainly we’ll see more video and live streaming. Rather than looking at a Twitter stream or Instagram pictures of a bombing in Boston, you’ll watch live stream of people who are there, holding up their phones and showing others what they see (or maybe wearing it on their face, head, or watch). Conference ‘calls’ with staff located around the world—face-to-face while traveling through your [modern-day] tablet. Movies—will it replace the movie theater? Being able to watch live with others around the world but from your own home the instant a new movie is released—streamed over the Internet—but not just to your TV.”

The digital editor for a very large media organization wrote, “I read recently that taste can now be reproduced over the Internet. I see more of this kind of thing. Transfer of actual money instead of virtual funds, microwave technology, hopefully someday even transportation of things and eventually people (as they do in Star Trek), eliminating the need for personal vehicles, and so forth.”

A health sciences librarian at a major US university responded, “The data collection apps will become huge bandwidth hogs. Why should people keep everything in their hard drive when they can keep it in a cloud? And why use a big cloud when you can have your very own cloud?”

A member of the clergy with an interest in the political and social implications of technology responded, “Ubiquitous, quickly-accessible storage may lead to a split between people ‘living in the cloud’ and people who choose to host their information at home on a physical apparatus they control. Scanning technologies, high-resolution photography and video, et cetera plus cheap, ubiquitous storage, and bandwidth may lead to radical de-cluttering of many homes and businesses—if ‘paperless’ really is as cheap, easy, and reliable as once envisioned. Fast upload bandwidth plus cheap Google-maps-car style handheld camera equals services that can image your home and recommend furnishings or appliances based on space and aesthetics.”

A information science professional responded, “It is just a given that the pace of apps will increase. I can’t predict the next social apps, but I know they will be very different from Facebook, Snapchat, and others. The one theme I envision is ephemera—most social communication will become instantaneous and non-recordable.”

An information science professional wrote, “Information sharing is the biggest area where we will see this. Interactive gaming, sharing of big data, and apps that can be manipulated around that data in real time are where we will see big applications of bandwidth availability. The holodeck will be in real time!”

An information science professional commented, “Organizing your life—financial, home security, personal—should become a breeze. Travel can be virtual, making globalization and sharing of information more universal. We should be able to see more similarities than differences. I worry about religious fanatic groups who can harness this connectivity to incite unrest. We need to provide meaningful employment so there is better resistance to this temptation.”

A 75 year-old retiree and volunteer, formerly a business professional, wrote, “Universal Wi-Fi! At least one hopes.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “Seems to have been the trend already. No reason it won’t continue as computing power, broadband access, and quality increase.”

An information science professional based in Delaware commented, “Significant bandwidth increase will allow us to transfer large amounts of information in a very speedy fashion. For example, I envision a time when everyone has their medical history in a chip, which is embedded in their body, information that could only be activated by a certain App and could be transmitted to any specialist in the world in a few seconds. Specialists working on one patient and they all have the identical and up to date information and they are all adding to their perspective to the diagnosis in real time.”

A webmaster of a history website and digitization consultant commented, “Home applications linked to appliances, and more widely accessible streaming media that will not be determined by the type of device that one owns. Also TV will become outmoded.”

An assistant professor of library and information science wrote, “As long as people are working with ‘big data’, there will be bigger pieces of data to work with that will require a lot more bandwidth. As for apps, there are so many ridiculous apps available now that people use. I’m sure that there are people who are pulling all of the personal data collected from those that it will require ever more bandwidth in order to create more compelling shopping experiences.”

An information science professional in Alaska wrote, “Bandwidth must continue to grow. So many places do not yet even have basic online service available. And, for things like e-government and education, this is key. I think gaming will continue to grow, as will online streaming of entertainment and connection with family and friends (live, like Skype).”

The manager of a non-profit hospital responded, “People seem fascinated by new apps so why wouldn’t they continue to work on development. More time saving apps, distance, keeping in touch, food or diet, and more.”

An information science professional responded, “Talk about expanded bandwidth is already widespread—the challenge will be penetration throughout society. But I can see significant increases in urban areas and population centers fueling new applications.”

A business professional replied, “More people will interact with each other through tablets and phones with video, sound, and games. I think they will be creating much more of a blended environment for personal lives.”

An information science professional commented, “Everything will be personalized and tracked. FitBit, a current exercise and calorie tracker worn on the wrist, in the future, would be telling you what to eat or ordering it for you.”

A corporate educator working in an investor-owned utility company wrote, “I don’t know what they will be, but I know they’re coming. The appetite is insatiable.”

An information science professional wrote, “As more people connect through cheaper mobile connections and higher bandwidth in rural areas, we will expect more, easier shopping experiences, banking, music, on-demand movies, and TV. More cloud computing to easier retrieval of documents and sharing options.”

The executive director of a non-profit community service organization commented, “Bandwidth is a necessity and there are at least some scholars and enterprising individuals who desire and can see ahead who will utilize the increased capability and speed to bring additional distinctive options.”

An information science professional commented, “Bandwidth will be mostly cellular and used as freely as AM radio is now.”

A professor teaching in a graduate program at a university responded, “Personal devices like smart phones and iPads will likely replace phones and the need to carry cash around.”

An information science professional commented, “I am not 100% confident of significant increases in bandwidth across the United States. But, in metropolitan areas, physical school buildings will be a thing of the past.”

The director of a suburban public library responded, “More virtual experiences of ‘being there’—FaceTime supercharged.”

A self-employed data journalist and Web developer commented, “Gigabit connectivity will most likely have the greatest impact on mobile applications allowing complex and greatly improved streaming video applications to be created. Gigabit connectivity will also drive innovation in the SmartTV market and development of SmartTV applications.”

An information science professional said, “I wish I had the vision to imagine what might come. But I’m sure others have it, and great things will come.”

An information science professional commented, “I would say games with higher graphics and immersion will definitely occur. Maybe multi-media stuff.”

A librarian for the US Department of Education wrote, “I have heard that the technology used to put a man on the moon can now be put on a cell phone. Now, even if that’s not exactly true, the sentiment is. The entire operating system of my first computer can easily be stored on a relatively small flash drive. We are only limited by storage and bandwidth. When those can increase exponentially, so can our imagination.”

An information science professional located in Oregon responded, “I don’t have a sci-fi type of imagination that can envision the future of technology. However, I have seen the future happen in my lifetime, and just when it seems impossible that it will become more innovative, it does. More bandwidth and more ubiquitous connectivity will expand our online world infinitely. I am most excited to see the Internet become available to people who have not had access until now. We forget that there are huge populations that have no access or limited access due to government intervention. Let’s hope we surmount those barriers.”

A post-doc researcher in mechanical engineering commented, “Well, of course, you can see a parallel happening with computer memory and RAM speeds. Computers started out so slow, but as the technology improved, so did speed, visual and audio quality, et cetera. Honestly, if I knew what sort of apps that had gigabit connectivity, I’d be working on them already. Probably something along the lines of gaming experience: any way that enables people to disconnect more from reality.”

An information science professional stated, “Two words: climate change. The technological paradise you envision is built on fossil fuels that are becoming rapidly scarcer, the harvesting and mining of which does continued damage to the environment and the climate. The tools and applications that will excite people the most will be those that allow them to keep cool in summer, warm in winter, and properly fed.”

A retired public librarian commented, “Change will continue at the same pace we have seen. Changes we can’t even comprehend will occur.”

An information science professional responded, “The politicians who usher in a truly digital era will be hailed as saints. America pays more money for slower Internet service than any comparable area in Europe or Asia, and the corporations behind the pricing structure will not let go of their profits without due motive, either in the form of government-mandated upgrades or swift competition.”

A consultant responded, “Inklings of author and futurist Isaac Asimov’s vision: Programming is currently working on corrections determined by the programs and changing accordingly.”

An information science professional wrote, “I think there will definitely be an increase in apps corresponding with higher connectivity. However there are still going to be instances of the ‘digital divide’ that keep the playing field more static.”

An information science professional commented, “If I knew that, I’d be writing them and getting ready to capitalize on them. Who knows? Maybe you could type in the names of actors and immediately get a list of film links for instant downloading and viewing. Maybe there will be apps to let you live-stream news broadcasts from other countries (Oh, BBC News, how I’d love that).”

A retired general manager of customer service for Sprint responded, “We will continue to get better and better at designing the apps. The more we see that can be accomplished, the more we will be able to design newer and better things.”

An information science professional commented, “I know what apps are, I don’t use them, I don’t have any of the fancy gadgets—wishful thinking. With the amount of genius people out there, putting all their time into inventing and creating these things, I am sure there will be significant increases in all fields.”

A published writer responded, “People are creative and they will create. This is the 5% whose lives are focused on innovation and making life interesting (the Steve Jobs among us).”

An information science professional based in Denver, Colorado, wrote, “I don’t know what tools or applications, but I remember using dial-up to hang out in AOL chat rooms, and man have things changed! I get annoyed if I have to wait thirty seconds for a television show to load, when it used to take minutes to just get connected to the Internet. So if what’s happened in the last twenty years is any indication, there will be some huge changes soon!”

A university professor based in Ohio wrote, “Given the changes in ‘killer apps’ we have seen in the past, it is certain technology will continue to evolve. Things that capture the human and public imagination will certainly be part of the landscape, though how, precisely, they will look can only be imagined.”

A retired information science professional responded, “Personal printers will become obsolete as technology forces everything into the ‘cloud.’ I would like to think print materials might become interactive as new ‘paper’ is developed. There is the distinct possibility that everyone will be given a microchip at birth.”

An information science professional predicted, “Personal connectivity is going to disappear in the developed world. Public imagination? As an example, just look at animated movies, they all look the same, and there is not criticism about this. Imagination will be part of those who resist the most the use of artificial intelligence.”

An information science professional responded, “I really don’t have any idea, but ‘not applicable’ or ‘unsure’ was not a choice.”

A research and analytics director at Omnicom Media Group responded, “Real world experiences will dominate people experiences: holograms, 4D, living other life, being in other spaces, shadows, and atmospheres as it was real, will be demanded. More actionable adventures, where you can create your own end. People finding they can travel and visit different places, meet with different people, visit cities, museums, and participate in a music concert, et cetera. People will ask to live different lives, escape from their routines.”

An information science professional wrote, “There is much creativity in the app development world and I am sure they will develop exciting and useful applications. As well, they will develop a lot of junk and mind eating applications.”

An information science professional responded, “I think app creation is incredibly popular right now, and has the potential to be very profitable, so I think developers will continue to look for ways to excite users and to be original. From an entertainment point of view, I think more immersive and stronger app games will emerge.”

A graduate school research instructor commented, “No idea what they will be (I’m a researcher and a teacher, not an engineer or entrepreneur), but at the rate of change we’re experiencing now, there are bound to be some really amazing technology things happening by 2025.”

An information science professional wrote, “People are always inventing new apps to take advantage of even the smallest leap forward in technology.”

A university professor wrote, “We have passed the point of no return! We need the Internet to take care of things and help people run their lives.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “Such things as FaceTime and Skype will be ubiquitous. Internet connectivity will improve greatly and become more standardized. (It is ridiculously inefficient for all the present carriers not to share one national standard.) I’m hoping that ‘phablets’ will take off. For example, a new Mac mini iPad with phone capability through an earpiece with microphone so that you’d have a useful small smart pad (unlike that on a current iPhone or other smartphone) but with telephone and FaceTime available. Nobody needs or wants to have several devices when this kind of consolidation is possible!”

An information science professional commented, “More interactive video-based tools, Video, and SMS.”

An information science professional responded, “If there is money to be made—it will happen. Incremental change. A whole house Roomba type auto-cleaning app. Maybe 3D instructive Do-It-Yourself apps for home remodeling, crafts, et cetera. Closet organizing and home inventory apps—solve the where did I put that question.”

An information science professional commented, “I think we will continue to virtualize the experience of story, whether through gaming, film, or multi-media. I think we’ll also continue to enhance the ability to participate and monitor events remotely, whether through enhanced virtual meetings, shopping experiences, health care visits, or home security.”

An academic librarian commented, “There likely will be new killer apps, but—like the killer apps of today—they will just be fads.”

A director for a municipal library wrote, “It’s hard to imagine what those applications might be! Ten years ago when I had a cell phone and a palm pilot and an iPod I thought about how great it would be to combine all those devices—and we’re there! But what’s next? Who knows—thinking about Google Glass reminds me of the M.T. Anderson young-adult book, Feed—is that what is next?”

An information science professional responded, “Personalized health care is already emerging as an area of great potential. High bandwidth will support real-time analysis by experts and software applications, and robotics for remote execution of medical procedures will become more widely deployed. Big Data initiatives will help to statistically establish which procedures, diets, and approaches are the most cost-effective and replicable, leading to the greatest long-term health benefits.”

An Information science professional commented, “Virtual reality will become even bigger and be incorporated into gaming at an even more intense level. Streaming movies where you can be in the movie, perhaps with each viewer having a different experience depending on their choices.”

A mostly-retired designer, writer, and Web developer wrote, “I think we’ll see distinctive and compelling advances in personal health monitoring (and hopefully, healing) and in ‘education’ (in quotes because the current concept of schools will be antiquated).”

An information science professional wrote, “The changes in banking, purchasing, et cetera will arise from app innovations.”

An information science professional commented, “Entertainment for the general populace, but only affordable by the more wealthy. Medical applications will be highly improved.”

A retired information science professional wrote, “I have no idea what it will be, but I am confident that there will be something.”

An information science professional wrote, “Only if it becomes affordable to be able to access the applications and high-speed Internet.”

A vice president of a major public association wrote, “If I knew the answer to this I would go work for Apple!”

An information science professional responded, “Any new thing that comes down the pike, unfortunately, ‘excites’ too many people. Increasingly, people pay with money that they do not have, for devices and technology that they do not need. This technology is updated at an increasingly rapid rate, and then these same people can’t wait to get the next new thing, just because it is new. It is an old marketing technique that most people still don’t realize or care that they are falling prey to. It is known as planned obsolescence.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “While it’s hard to predict what innovations may be coming, I believe the most exciting new tools will come from tools that can parse and draw conclusions from machine-readable linked data.”

A digital information specialist for a nonprofit organization responded, “The advances will proceed as long as we have great minds to drive it.”

An information science professional commented, “I probably lack the imagination to envision what they might be, but I feel this is definitely on the horizon—simply because ‘they can’ and the drive for new, more, and better, and because profits demand new, more, and better.”

A personal coach, author and speaker commented, “There is time and space, but anything can be overwhelmed. Broadband use, radio technology and so forth have the Earth cocooned in layers of radio or laser waves that the aura now exceeds the size of Earth. Like the tower of Babel, one day we are going to hit our limit, and who knows what will happen.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “Apps that automate processes will be there, but they will require lots of data. Multimedia will be everywhere and that eats data. I’m not sure about specific new apps, but those with automation will be key.”

An information science professional commented, “It’s difficult to imagine what will be created in ten plus years that isn’t built on what has already been created. Wearable technology, such as Google Glass, will continue to be improved upon, manufactured in a cost-effective manner, and be very popular. This, however, is already here, and not something I consider new or unique to technology. The one area I could see being fleshed out on a larger scale is bionic implants, but I believe this won’t happen successfully until after the year 2025.”

A retired Information science professional responded, “In the area of medical care there will be great changes in diagnosis, testing, and treatment.”

An author and editor wrote, “Wearable technology like Google Glass will be widely used and improved upon. However, I am not optimistic about power sources like batteries improving to meet the demands of the new devices.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “Things like Google Glass and its ilk will reach a critical mass within the next few years. I look at e-books and how there was a lot of early skepticism because, as far as I can tell, no one had gotten the interface quite right. But then Kindle came along and suddenly e-books are an extremely viable commodity. Mobile, non-keyboard-and-monitor based connectivity will follow the same trajectory.”

An activist Internet user commented, “One of the areas that can benefit and grow from this technology is health care. Many apps will be developed to enhance the patient’s monitoring of their own health care status with transmission to their health care providers, possibly eliminating some face-to-face contact with patients.”

An information science professional responded, “Apps are growing like crazy! Increased bandwidth will allow developers to think bigger and better. Anything that makes day-to-day life easier will be popular. For example, an app that scans your fridge and lets you know what is about to expire, anything that can remotely secure your home, et cetera. The possibilities are exciting!”

An information science professional commented, “My bandwidth concern is mostly that some places are being left behind. More and more apps like streaming music and especially streaming video take a lot of bandwidth that can’t be handled in some places. Some rural areas have no Internet access at all. In others, it is too slow to handle all these wonderful new high-bandwidth apps. I’m thinking specifically of Arkansas and West Virginia. As for apps, I’m sure there are people out there whose imagination runs wild. I’m more of a detail person. I like the ability to see maps and get directions. I have a medical device that allows me to upload data so the medical personnel can see it. I would like to see more medical uses, like the expert doctors seeing remote patients using the Internet to expand. This helps people in rural areas. Video conferencing and webinars are other great ideas. With more bandwidth, more intensive uses could be made of these tools. I wonder about distance education. What would stop someone from having all the best experts teach their classes online so anyone, anywhere could take them? Would universities become obsolete? I guess not, because some people would still want face-to-face instruction. For that matter, all the e-books, e-music, e-videos, et cetera could be put online and make libraries obsolete. The problem there is who would pay for them? Would each person have to pay a fee? Now, people can use libraries for free because the library and their governing body paid for the materials.”

An attorney working on digital issues for the federal government commented, “I believe that there will be immersive, interactive, and possibly ubiquitous communications applications—not only for entertainment, but to facilitate work and collaboration.”

An Internet user wrote, “The biggest excitement will come when there are no longer dead zones in connectivity such as there are today. When places like the Upper Peninsula of Michigan have broadband in a new context and electrical service is available to all. This means much more than Facebook or Twitter apps.”

An information science professional responded, “Apps that allow users to regulate their life in ways unforeseeable now will be available. While we already see elements of this, apps that give credit for exercise or that help prepare meals via videos and grocery lists, we will see a new wave of free apps that allow users to essentially order their life—from grocery bags ready to go curbside with a click of the app to direct pay for simply walking via a pedometer app. Apps that help regulate life, paid most likely through ads, are already out there as said before, but it will be a larger scale and used by a majority of the masses, rather than a select few currently.”

A retired educational technologies specialist responded, “Anything Google is working on! Just follow their work.”

An information science professional at a major US school of medicine wrote, “This only seems sensible. If you make more bandwidth available, more apps that use more bandwidth will follow and people will use them. What might those apps be? I have no idea.”

A retired longtime IT professional responded, “No clue specifically, but bandwidth will be used to our advantage.”

An information science professional commented, “This seems to already be happening. From streaming video, mobile data usage, et cetera, a more heavy reliance on bandwidth can already be seen. I think these sorts of apps will become even more popular, especially streaming content on an individual basis—I see this happening with television. No more purchasing large cable packages; consumers can subscribe to individual channels, shows, et cetera, and view on any device, anywhere.”

An information science professional located in Massachusetts wrote, “I think, and hope so, given that the United States has lagged behind the majority of developed nations in Internet connectivity and bandwidth.”

A writer, website operator, and technical consultant for local and wide area networking responded, “Such things will arrive, but the process will be incremental rather than explosive. We’ll recognize ‘killer apps’ in retrospect.”

An information science professional in Connecticut commented, “Apps will probably include a lot more large file sharing from the Internet as a standard part of them, especially video, as well as constantly running sensors, widgets, and monitors that process a lot of data.”

A self-employed attorney wrote, “I can’t begin to imagine what will happen in eleven years or so, but if I look back eleven years, I couldn’t have imagined the technology I have today.”

An information science professional commented, “There will be significant technology applications for sure—they are happening all the time right now. But there is a big disconnect in increasing apps, increasing bandwidth and digital access. For example, many people own e-readers right now and have access to the Internet, but do not necessarily have WiFi. There is a growing assumption that everyone not only has Internet access, but also access to WiFi and that is not the case at all.”

A user-experience designer for a usability consultancy commented, “I think the most likely scenario is that increased bandwidth will feed our impatience and need for information to come quickly to our fingertips.”

The director for research and instruction at a major US university wrote, “Humans innovate. That’s what we do. So it only stands to reason that we will continue to find uniquely compelling tech applications.”

An information science professional based in Ohio responded, “Immersive media experiences are exactly the sort of thing I envision. There will be the ability to travel virtually to places that are far remote from the user.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “The killer app is the transformation of Internet access to a public good—a foundation of the digital commons. The protocols necessary to use one’s smart device for free (or flat fee) no matter where one is in the world. At minimum this will give tourism a huge boost as GPS, social networking, and currency exchange will become ubiquitous default—in a sense invisible because it’s everywhere.”

An anonymous survey participant responded, “An increase in bandwidth will give developers a stronger environment for design and creation.”

The head of strategy at the Finnish Broadcasting Company Tuija commented, “Immersive television experiences will be offered, merging game-like interactive storytelling.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “There will be significant increases in the ability to send data whether via ‘bandwidth’ or some other technology that serves a similar purpose, but may not be called bandwidth or even be bandwidth. By 2025 bandwidth may be a passed technology.”

A director of IT for a large educational organization commented, “Expect more high-definition content delivery via apps, mostly in the areas of entertainment and collaboration.”

A consultant for nonprofit organizations commented, “As information continues to grow, customized aggregation of data in user friendly formats will be available. Use of video, data sharing, will be easier, faster and more real-time oriented. It will be the ‘way companies do business.’ Medical apps will be expanded extensively. Scientists will use gigabit apps for analysis. The stock market will run differently.”

A library and information science master’s student commented, “Bandwidth has been relatively stagnant throughout the United States for the last ten years, with minor efforts by Google in specific cities. If bandwidth is increased, what apps are able to accomplish with this new found bandwidth should increase. But the bandwidth will come at a high price to backbone providers. Some argue that Google didn’t really want to be in the pipeline business, but they are showing it is possible, therefore forcing the traditional Internet providers to try to catch up.”

A social science research supervisor commented, “Global competition, scientific advances, and a quest for lost morality as the need to regurgitate mountains of information at record speeds increases.”

An anonymous survey participant responded, “Entertainment will always advance to the technology available. If there are high graphics cards made, there will be apps that take advantage of them.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “I expect telepresence to be a success.”

A PhD candidate in the social sciences predicted “More personal data collection and monitoring regarding health.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “While those with access will engage in new computing, big data, and apps, those with little access now will continue to have little access and those with no access will benefit from technology only a little bit, not as much as those who are already connected.”

An anonymous survey participant responded, “Probably. Just look at how much smaller computer devices have become in the last 10 years.”

A physician and healthcare researcher at an academic medical center commented, “We have already seen this occur—the shift from kilobytes to megabytes—and as gigabit becomes available, for example, 3D, hologram structures, or the ability to project streaming videos in 3D or 2D from mobile devices.”

A leader of a major non-profit grassroots organization in California responded, “They will be available to the upper and perhaps middle class.”

A pastor who is active in the TEA Party in the United States responded, “Those new killer apps have not yet been thought of. Facebook had not been though of ten years ago either.”

A retired college professor commented, “If you believe this technology boom will take place—which I do—the sky is the limit. I’m not an engineer or computer person to know what or where, but I am excited to see what will come!”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “Regrettably I do not have the creativity and vision to imagine such changes, as I am constantly amazed at what comes from these areas.”

An information science professional wrote, “More bandwidth will allow for apps that would need more space, or memory. Each computer that comes out promises more and more memory increases which will encourage app creators to expand on what their apps can do.”

The digital communications manager for an independent book publisher wrote, “It’s virtually inevitable. Or let’s put it this way, if we don’t have both significantly improved bandwidth and uses to take advantage of it by then, 2025 will suck.”

The senior manager of digital for a marketing agency providing services to nonprofits commented, “There may be better ways of managing all of our data (photos, emails, etc.) or maybe new ways to connect with friends? Publishing?”

An information science professional wrote, “I say yes, but I think we’ve already seen things that bombed. Wasn’t there a Google website for creating your own electronic medical record? But, you had to enter too much data on your own. So, it failed because of how much work it took, not so much for privacy reasons. I downloaded an app to create my own family cookbook and entered only 1/2 a recipe before I gave up on it. The key will be the ability to migrate existing data, like with bank statements into an Excel sheet. Even that feels like too much work sometimes. The website Mint is okay, but it misinterprets too much data, and I found it bothersome to correct the labels all the time in order to create the most accurate tables of my expenditures. People obviously love sharing photos, movies, and the stories of their lives with others. If there is an easy way to archive (like Ancestry.com) I think that will continue. And, practical records for health, money, and similar functions.”

A market intelligence analyst for a medical publisher responded, “The PC, TV, and telephone will merge into one device at home. Entertainment will take advantage of this and allow movies at home to be broadcast, theatre productions, concerts—access will greatly expand, you will no longer need to be onsite, you can ‘pay and listen’ to Carnegie Hall performance at home. You will also be able to do business with multiple ‘video’ displays of people attending one meeting from multiple places in the world, international companies will use this routinely as more cost effective. Libraries will use this gigabit to provide real-time video-virtual reference and research services to their communities, providing searches and answers and suggestions for books and a list of resources, all curated by information professionals, it will be a new library of the future.”

A high-level administrator for a large library system in the Midwest wrote, “If I knew, I’d invest now!”

A law librarian for a large legal services organization wrote, “The question is how much work we will be allowed or pushed to do at home versus an office. I expect that many jobs like call centers or even information work will be pushed into the piecework economic system and will not include a workplace.”

A newspaper journalist and health communications consultant wrote, “The apps will be attached somehow to those willing to attach them. They may be as un-intrusive as a pin on a lapel, or as intrusive as chips imbedded in our brains. They will allow us to view and manipulate everything from entertainment to business operations and to view them in as large a size as our brain wants to view them—not on a telephone screen. In fact, those people who accept the most personally invasive technology will not need devices.”

An information science professional wrote, “Everyone loves apps, and I’m sure there will be something new, big, and exciting soon. “

An information science professional responded, “There will always be the next bigger, better app. Big data is useful in seeing the big picture in science, but I don’t need gigabit connectivity to see my photos, to access my music, to see my videos. What will excite people in the next decade will be the ability to navigate the quality of information available, not the amounts of data available. Having access to more just means more junk, not more quality.”

A self-employed digital consultant responded, “Particularly in rural communities not well served by brick-and-mortar schooling and access to post-secondary education, the open education movement will yield more options.”

An anonymous survey participant responded, “This seems inevitable. I have no idea what it will look like, but a decade from now we’ll be looking back at current technology and laughing.”

An information science professional commented, “With more bandwidth, it will be easier to share music, photos, videos, etc.”

A university faculty member commented, “Video streaming, thought wave processing, use of eye movement, and other technology to control a variety of devices. Screens will disappear. Your wall paint will serve as your new screen. Technology will be built into everything.”

A CEO and editor in chief of an international media services company commented, “Healthcare and treatments will become more personalized, and the monitoring of genetic predispositions to disease, even seasonal infections (flu, allergies) will be predictable and treatable. Preventative care will become mandatory—and cheaper.”

The social media manager for a broadband company wrote, “We are already well on the path.”

The owner of an Internet and digital marketing company based in Pennsylvania responded, “I think we will see more 24/7 mobile connectivity that is very individualistic and customizable.”

A self-employed content creator and distributor wrote, “I can’t say—but I know they will be invented. They always are.”

An anonymous survey participant responded, “It’s purely logical—look at how storage and memory increases have accompanied growth in OS and software.”

A public affairs official for a US federal organization responded, “Probably yes, but the important assumption in the question is “that capitalize upon significance in bandwidth.”

A content marketer and writer responded, “The big idea is out there somewhere, and someone will find it.”

A senior project manager in distributed Agile Software Development wrote, “Our country is ruled by the dollar, and currently there are too many dollars on the side of limiting our access to the kind of applications which could be easily accommodated by gigabit internet. Once someone finds a way to chase the dollar down the gigabit Ethernet cord and into your home, you can bet it’ll be a game changer, and most likely a monopoly which our courts will eventually have to rule on.”

A director of entertainment marketing responded, “I don’t have insight into what the content might be, however I think this is an area where we’ve only begun to scratch the surface. There is so much opportunity for growth in this area, and it will be interesting to see where the technology developers lead us.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “On-demand everything will be available. I was recently impressed by the streaming of Alpha House by Amazon. It loaded quickly and the high definition was remarkable. It appears that Amazon is working on this technology and could quickly become the iTunes of movies. If I can access any movie, any time, then why do I need my DirecTV? When I travel, I take my Roku with me. From Netflix to Amazon to the missed episode of my favorite TV show, it’s there, when I want it. It is expected that the NFL will allow companies like Amazon or YouTube to provide consumers the ability to watch any game for a small fee. Anything you can imagine can be available through broadband without expensive equipment or contracts.”

A university-based information science professional commented, “It seems to me that connectivity is a national priority. Therefore there will be mass adaptation to innovative apps. I see more apps connecting people to each other, especially from a business standpoint. It may revolutionize telecommuting.”

A market researcher who also does usability testing for sites and applications wrote, “I have no idea what it will be, just that it’s about time for another ‘killer app.’ If I knew… I’d invent it!”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “Virtual reality for simulations for entertainment could be possible. Remote manipulation of the physical world in the medical field. Again, this is urban. Much of rural America will not have this. Broadband accessibility will still be a problem —one the market will not address unless government steps in. I see much larger differentiation not by income but by where people grow up and live.”

An anonymous survey participant responded, “Virtual and augmented reality. Holographic meeting rooms for business. People will be able to truly work together without being together, because they will be together physically but virtually in 3D. Nonstop streaming life video. People will be able to record 100% of their lives to cloud storage. Star Trek-style ‘badge’ communicators, where we’ll talk to each other anytime, anyplace, without needing to hold a phone or a headset. Star Trek-style intelligent conversational computers, where we’ll be able to have full conversations with our computers.”

A retired information science professional responded, “One area where I can see an increased usage is being able to store more things like music, pictures, books, games, maps, etc. The ability to edit and manipulate information will tempt many people to use their smart phones and android devices much more than PCs. The ability to share information will be useful for businesses who would be able to share without Wi-Fi. Many of the new games are enormous already and as the technology improves, the quality of the games on mobile devices as well as tablets will vastly expand due to the increased bandwidth.”

A researcher and graphic designer wrote, “Just as the first Atari’s, Commodore 64s, 286 desktop computers, early modems, and the speed of 75 MHz were revolutionary they are relics now. Technology will continue to strive to be bigger, better, faster, smaller at breakneck speeds.”

A deputy director with a research organization commented, “I can’t really say what the ‘killer apps’ will be but history shows us the more we enable the industry the more likely disruptive technologies will be developed.”

A professor of education at a major research university wrote, “I have no idea, but I didn’t foresee the current killer apps either. I’m not much of a futurist, I’m afraid.”

The principal engineer for an Internet of Things development company commented, “All sort of virtual reality apps will take off with higher speed wireless connections.”

An information science professional commented, “Considering the Internet is still in its infancy today, and that the Internet of things is really only becoming a reality, I can’t even guess what it would be. I can only imagine the rapidity of change will continue to increase to lead us to applications I cannot imagine.”

The CEO of one of the largest US private foundations focused on the future of communications wrote, “If I knew, I’d be clipping coupons based on my still-existent patents.”

A creator of nonprofit media content wrote, “I am unable to anticipate where the breakouts will be—but as fast as things are developing, I am almost certain that the difference in 10 years will be vast.”

A self-employed writer commented, “This is a silly question—why the hyped sale language? Of course there will be new apps that take advantage of increasing bandwidth.”

The publisher for a large scholarly society specializing in digital communication wrote, “I cannot possibly imagine what those killer apps might be—but no more could I have imagined 10 years ago how attached I am to my iPhone today. New tools and services will come along and we simply won’t know how we ever lived without them.”

An information science professional and leader for a national association wrote, “This is simply bound to happen based on the current trends and rate of development that we are seeing. Things like banking via mobile app will continue to evolve.”

A policy advisor wrote, “I don’t know what the killer app may be, but it is unreasonable to think that there will not be such a thing. If I had to guess, I think 3D printing could replace lots of simple (and not so simple) manufacturing. Shipping manufacturing instructions around to different printers will probably not require new connectivity, however. How about 3D teleconferencing? Holodecks, here we come!”

An associate professor and researcher at the University of Toronto wrote, “Email is the killer app because address is embedded and it is an identifier. Videomail will be the next killer app. Nearly all Internet apps are stepping stone technologies. At the present, IPv6 is transforming routing.

An assistant professor at Radboud University Nijmegen in the Netherlands replied, “Well, the Internet of Things is something that probably will take off in the coming years. Also, mobile entertainment. Netflix is already a heavy-bandwidth consumer. Imagine when you have this constantly with you on the go.”

A minority rights advocate and media analyst, teacher, and journalist commented, “If I knew, I would be making them—and money on them.”

A journalist, editor, and leader of an online news organization responded, “With ubiquitous always-on networking for the wealthy, life will be as much in virtual space as real, and everything will be annotated. The parallel processing power of human minds, as well as servers, will raise our understanding of everything.”

A researcher for a major US technology company wrote, “This is kind of a silly question. Bandwidth has been steadily increasing and we’ve been finding new uses for it. Of course that will continue.”

A lawyer and law professor commented, “If I knew, I would be rich!”

A professor at Widener University commented. “Technology is constantly changing and it will continue to change the way we live.”

An anonymous respondent commented, “Increased computing power will lead to a host of new technological advances in any area that is currently hampered. For example, AI algorithms limit the amount of data consumed at each step because of processing problems. But data has the capacity to grow infinitely; so efficient programming will always be essential. Methods will evolve as capability evolves, and capability will transform fields such as medicine and astronomy.

A leader with the School of Information and Library Science at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill wrote, “Ten years is not a very long time. More media (video, etc) used routinely for communication seems obvious. Sensor data (especially self-generated health information) will explode.”

An anonymous respondent commented, “As previously noted, ‘the cloud’ and the applications that connect to it will increasingly be used to leverage the massive amounts of data being collected by a wide array of devices and sensors. ‘Killer apps’ will often be free, in exchange for rights to one’s data. In some cases this may prove empowering for users. In other cases it will increasingly become another form of labor, for which individuals will not be compensated.”

A professor in the humanities at a major private university, commented, “Well, in the last 10 years we’ve seen Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter become huge beasts so it stands to reason other things will have the same rise.”

A university-employed researcher and teacher responded, “Prediction is hard. But I don’t see anything emerging. However, the Internet does keep re-inventing itself every few years.”

An anonymous respondent commented, “There will be apps and applications that we cant even imagine today. Who knew of a cell phone 15 years ago? Communications will be different and even more immediate, communications between different parts of the world immediate and clear. Personal devices will communicate by command.”

A top engineer for a major US company and longtime Internet architect wrote, “I don’t know what the killer app will be, but I am pretty sure that one will emerge.”

The owner of a small publishing and consulting business wrote, “Who knows? That’s what’s cool.”

A software engineer who works for a major US technology company said, “I fully expect something huge to emerge. If I knew what it was, I’d be working on it already!

An attorney at a prominent law firm responded, “Every facet of the Internet will be expanded, particularly those parts which do not involve traditional keyboard-mouse-monitor computers. The complicating factor is that the more that goes online, the more peril there is when it crashes. In the same way a mechanic with a wrench could fix a car in the 1950s and today that often requires special software, so too will go the entire developed world.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “History teaches us that the answer is obviously yes, and that predicting specific applications is simply guesswork.”

The dean and provost of a research university and former CEO of the California Virtual University wrote, “I expect significant improvement in transportation—GPS, booking of flights, rail etc. I expect there will be improvements in entertainment—TV, VCR (or whatever replaces it), and music reproduction. I can see the use of AI and other electronic advancements in cars, with improved safety and speed as results.”

A webmaster wrote, “Although I answered ‘yes’ I am not in a position to describe what these killer apps might be. However, feel free to look at countries such as South Korea where Internet speeds are far beyond that which is found in the United States.”

A self-employed entrepreneur and author wrote, “It is a matter of historical fact. Each advance brings new applications.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “We don’t know what these apps are yet. Once the gigabit connectivity creates new affordances the apps will come.”

A self-employed writer, researcher and consultant wrote, “I don’t know what they will be but expect them.”

An anonymous survey participant observed, “We continue to develop communicative tools that allow us to connect with individuals across time and space. These tools allow us to engage in ways that were not possible in the past. I hope that the synchronous and asynchronous tools continue to develop and become ubiquitous in the ways we conduct business, school, and personal interactions.”

A consumer advocate wrote, “Video and games will remain the main high bandwidth applications, though of course the capacity for these will increase.”

A freelance editor and writer responded, “They seem to be very popular now. Personal connections are popular; one sees people connecting while in the middle of people all around them.”

A university professor wrote, “Wider faster bandwidth will simply make more apps possible.”

A PhD student in communications wrote, “My only comment is my skepticism that significant increases in bandwidth will be widespread or at least evenly spread. If anything, the next 12 years will see an increase in the gap between the Internet in cities versus the one American rural areas have access to.”

An independent researcher wrote, “I wouldn’t have predicted Twitter one month before it launched and am in no better position to answer this.”

A professor at a major US business school responded, “Television, movies, and home entertainment will not remain the same. But it will take public intervention to end the sports-broadcasting monopolies over the air, and kick it into online formats.”

A professional who works for a nonprofit working to close the digital divide wrote, “There is no reason why the trend from 2000 to 2013 will slow down in the next 12 years.”

A lecturer at Southern Cross University in Australia observed, “Hard to predict. Perhaps a lot more shopping? It is assumed that gigabit connectivity will help medical issues in the third world. By current progress with these technologies, it is highly unlikely that high-speed connectivity will be able to have any impact on our most pressing global issues.”

An anonymous respondent said, “I’m certain that whenever bandwidth increases there will be an increase in all sorts of applications that will gobble it up. The question is which if any of those apps will be truly transformative.”

An assistant professor at a Big Ten university wrote, “I can’t pinpoint a specific type of app. However, I do know that technology does not stagnate. People are always willing to push the limits and this will continue to happen as capacity continues to expand.”

A doctoral student at a private university in Washington D.C. wrote, “I doubt bandwidth will increase significantly due to the commercialized nature of the web.”

A professor at New York University responded, “If I could answer this question I would be rich, rich, rich.”

An anonymous survey participant who works as a cyber security policy strategist and consultant wrote, “Immersive 3D virtual reality will require greater bandwidth than we currently have.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “If I knew the answer to that question I’d start my own company and patent my ideas.”

A Web developer responded, “This is happening now and is in development.”

The chief marketing officer for a large advertising agency wrote, “Yes, most definitely—though if I knew the specific answer, I’d be out inventing them right now.”

A government-based cultural technology research analyst wrote, “I’m sure that there will be killer apps. I wish I knew what they would be and I’d be a rich person!”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “There will definitely be a new technology due to permanent new advancements but the period of time is too short to see a significant increase in bandwidth.”

An administrative assistant for a major US foundation wrote, “Apps are advancing even faster than technology and as soon as more bandwidth is available, there will be apps to utilize it.”

A senior Web designer wrote, “There has already been significant change and applications we never dreamed of before. There’s no reason to think this won’t continue in the future. I can’t imagine what the changes will be, but I’m excited to experience them.”

A consultant for a major religious organization wrote, “I don’t have an imagination large enough to elaborate on this but I believe that humans are not done inventing and innovating in this area.”

An information science professional at the College of the Bahamas commented, “Bandwidth needs to increase (at a reasonable cost). ‘Killer apps’ come and go.”

An information science professional wrote, “I would say ‘no’ as I’m not an app user, but I’ve learned not to assume that change won’t happen and won’t happen radically.”

A federal government employee wrote, “I’m not a good prognosticator of tech trends. I still don’t see how Twitter will ever make money.”

A librarian and instructor at a primarily online university wrote, “Modifications on the existing landscape of apps (e.g. higher quality, more bandwidth-intensive video games for mobile devices) seems more likely than significant conceptual innovation. I think we’re at or past the limits of this—at least barring direct neural interfaces that can alter brain activity becoming available and commonly used.”

An information science professional at a private, non-profit university “I can’t foresee what these new tools and applications might look like.”

A business person in the medical technologies sector wrote, “There is sufficient bandwidth and so many applications that people and businesses are already overwhelmed. Disintegrated systems need to be rationalized.”

A professor at Oregon State University commented, “For better and worse, capitalism will be at play here.”

A self-employed technology consultant wrote, “If I could tell you intelligently, I would be a science fiction writer. Now we call those folks futurists.”

The CEO of a small business commented, “There will be incremental change, but little more. It is hard to imagine what ‘new, distinctive, and uniquely compelling’ apps might yet be developed.”

An information science professional at a large, public research university responded, “Right now not all of the country has high-speed internet. Until fiber optic cable increases occur, we will not have the same marketplace for apps.”

An information science professional in rural, eastern Washington State responded, “No. I see access to bandwidth being limited in mobile, and the loss of Net neutrality. We will have ‘technology applications that capitalize upon significant increases in bandwidth in the US,’ but I don’t think they will be compelling. I think they will be focused on entertainment, and very corporatized.”

An information science professional wrote, “I dispute the premise that there is expanding bandwidth. Bandwidth is finite, only the distribution and usage change.”

An information science professional responded, “I think apps are temporary, personally. I think there are probably going to be better ways to impart information and software to others.”

An associate professor at Bergen Community College commented, “So far, there have not been any ‘uniquely compelling’ apps. Apps in general are causing incremental change.”

An information science professional based in Florida commented, “See Dave Eggers’ The Circle. I don’t think the public will approve those broken walls of privacy in a mere 10 years.”

A professor in the Department of Communication Studies at Texas State University commented, “We have passed the point of the next big thing. Consider the reactions to the 3D printer. It is revolutionary, but it has company.”

An anonymous survey participant responded, “Of course I am not an IT guru, but there appears to have been a distinct slowing of the creation of killer apps. Even if we create a Dick Tracy watch, how would this significantly alter the landscape? Google Glass? That is giving some pause for thought. My cardiologist has a neat case for his iPhone that records my heart rhythm. Cute, really. I could get one, I guess, but how would I interpret the result? It really would be cool if the techies could invent a way to record my thoughts in a way that I would not need to type them! Of course, one would still need to edit what we think, wouldn’t we? Or how about an app that grades essay examinations? That would be really useful. Of course I would also be out of a job.”

A self-employed media consultant, artist, and writer, wrote, “New killer technologies assail us every day and it has been like this since the first personal computer. This growth is not going to change much in 11 years.”

A supporter of the ICT entrepreneurship ecosystem in Europe wrote, “The US Internet broadband network must be improved beforehand.”

A retired network administrator, formerly with the US Department of Commerce, wrote, “There will be new apps, but new restrictions must be made with the increase of bandwidth. One or two companies now have the power to buy it. That must change for competition. The public must decide if the airwaves are the public right or only for those who can pay for it.”

An information science professional responded, “I have no idea what new apps may become available, but undoubtedly if there is bandwidth available, someone will create something to fill it.”

An information science professional commented, “Virtual reality will become much more immersive and consuming—as well as life-destroying and addictive.”

An associate professor at York College wrote, “I think the line between physical and virtual experience will blur. But, I’m not sure we’ve imagined the ways in which it could happen yet.”

An information science professional commented, “That seems to be the trend. I’m not certain what killer app would use that much technology, but certainly there is a requirement of an increase in bandwidth being used.”

An information science professional commented, “I’m sure the continual quest for quicker connections will continue, but I wonder what people will be willing to pay for the technology.”

An information science professional responded, “We are seeing wearable devices now, smart homes, and cars.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “Newer, fresher, faster, bigger, and better is the standard.”

An information science professional based in Delaware wrote, “Right now, the libraries are looking at the ‘White Space’ project, which could be a huge help to their communities. That type of project would make a large impact and make libraries a focal point for discussion in the new services they can provide.”

The chief operating officer at a large public library system responded, “By 2025, gigabit will be commonplace. I cannot even begin to imagine how communication, information storage, and data transfer will look.”

A student at the University of Washington wrote, “Technological advancement progresses at an exponential rate. It is impossible to believe that faster, more efficient networks and tools wouldn’t create unimaginably incredible new apps. I personally am intrigued by the concepts of augmented reality that have enormous potential, but are impossible with our current technological level.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “Of course there will be. If I knew what they were going to be, I’d be rich!”

An information science professional in Virginia commented, “We are already seeing increases in bandwidth, four gig versus five, new TV’s, large computer screens, all with better resolution, better definition, this will not change but continue to evolve and expand. 3D TVs are still trying to catch on and not everyone is convinced it’s the way to go but as the price goes down, the demand increases, it will be the same with each technological advance that comes along.”

An information science professional based in Ohio responded, “There will always be something new and compelling for people to rabidly follow. People will eventually plateau at what they can tolerate when it comes to invasive technologies. I know a lot of people who are moving away from constant connectivity to try to find a way to have a life again in spite of burgeoning apps and technology.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “I have no idea what new tools and applications are on the horizon. I just know that device ownership and Internet usage has grown dramatically over the past ten years and I expect it to continue to do so. As consumption goes up, bandwidth will need to go up as well.”

A digital content advisor responded, “If bandwidth increases, people will use it. Period. I’m not an expert in this area, but being in the field of books and publishers, I could see the possibility of each person building a virtual digital library of books, papers, information, videos, and photos in the Cloud to be available to them on demand and indexed and organized in any way they like.”

The vice president at a major arboretum predicted, “Music connected to the landscape as you pass through it.”

A media distribution professional based in New Jersey commented, “Why would the trend of needing more and faster technology change? As people continue to live in a virtual, electronic world they will rely on apps to meet the needs of their real-world life and help them engage in the virtual world of media.”

An anonymous survey participant wrote, “Instant Net Availability on wristwatches to eyeglasses with instant Wi-Fi. Landlines will be long gone. Internet access, phone, and instant picture or video capabilities will be available in one device.”

An attorney and partner in a private law firm commented, “We will move closer, if not already have, systems and apps in our bodies for information, health, and communication.”

A media distribution professional responded, “It is human nature to want bigger, better, and faster.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “If bandwidth is available, it will be capitalized upon and used.”

An information science professional commented, “It is hard for me to predict what might be invented, but something new and surprising seems to occur each decade.”

An anonymous survey participant wrote, “Multimedia, virtual reality experiences will become more popular.”

An information science professional commented, “I think this arena will grow like the chip industry has, with consistent, large leaps.”

A metadata librarian based in a large US metropolitan area responded, “I can’t begin to imagine what ‘killer apps’ will be available, but I have no doubt they’ll exist. There is so much creativity out there just waiting to be unleashed.”

An assistant professor at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire wrote, “Yes—but I’m not able to yet visualize what.”

An anonymous respondent wrote, “I said yes just because it has always happened in the past—no clue what the future will bring!”

An information science professional in Colorado commented, “One area that will expand is that Skype or FaceTime-type of communication will expand and become the norm. Another area where we will see big changes in is the gaming and entertainment area. Gaming will become more interactive than it already is. Also, education will continue to benefit from the changes and that there will be fewer and fewer traditional, four-year, classroom universities and more remote and targeted training and education opportunities.”

An information science professional wrote, “I can see movies and the media being an app that will show everything with one click.”

To read full official survey analysis, please click here.

To read credited responses to the report, please click here.